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      Técnica de perfusión selectiva cerebral vía subclavia para la corrección de patologías del arco aórtico Translated title: Selective cerebral perfusion technique by subclavian approach for correction of aortic arch pathology

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          Abstract

          Objetivo: describir y evaluar la técnica de perfusión subclavia para protección cerebral selectiva con hipotermia moderada. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de 19 pacientes, a quienes se les practicó corrección de disección o aneurisma del arco aórtico mediante la utilización de esta técnica. Resultados: entre septiembre de 2002 y septiembre de 2005, se intervinieron 19 pacientes. El 68,4% eran hombres, con un promedio de edad de 54,05 ± 13,53 años. La disección de aorta tipo A correspondió al 57,8%; el 42,2% restante tenía aneurismas en alguna porción de la aorta con compromiso del cayado. El 73,7% tenía insuficiencia valvular aórtica. El 47,3% se encontró en clase funcional I, el 31,5% en clase II y el 21% en clase III. El 36,8% requirió revascularización coronaria. El tiempo promedio de perfusión cerebral selectiva fue de 28,95 ± 8,73 minutos; la perfusión sistémica fue de 163,31 ± 32,15 minutos, el pinzamiento aórtico fue de 135,36 ± 34,48 minutos y la temperatura promedio fue de 27º ± 0,94º centígrados. Hubo tres defunciones. No ocurrieron complicaciones neurológicas definitivas. Conclusión: esta técnica puede ser estandarizada para cirugías electivas o emergentes. Es una técnica simple, reproducible, que permite períodos de tiempo más prolongados para la reconstrucción del arco aórtico sin producir isquemia del tejido cerebral, tiempos de circulación extracorpórea más cortos, pocas complicaciones por sangrado, disminución del riesgo de embolización cerebral anterógrada y un excelente resultado neurológico final.

          Translated abstract

          Objective: describe and evaluate the subclavian perfusion technique for selective cerebral protection with moderate hypothermia. Methods: descriptive study of 19 patients to whom correction of the dissection or aneurysm of the aortic arch through the utilization of this technique was practiced. Results: between September 2002 and September 2005, 19 patients were operated. 68.4% were men with mean age 54.05 ± 13.53 years. 57.8% corresponded to aortic dissection type A; the remaining 42.2% had aneurysms in some portion of the aorta, with arch involvement. 73.7% had aortic valve insufficiency. 47.3% were in functional class I, 31.5% in class II and 21% in class III. 36.8% required coronary revascularization. Mean time of selective cerebral perfusion was 28.95 ± 8.73 minutes; systemic perfusion was 163.31 ± 32.15 minutes; aortic clamping was 135.36 ± 34.48 minutes and mean temperature was 27.66º ± 0.94ºC. There were 3 deaths. No definitive neurological complications were found. Conclusions: this technique may be standardized for elective or emergent surgeries. It is a simple reproducible technique that allows more prolonged periods of time for the reconstruction of the aortic arch without producing cerebral ischemia; the extracorporeal circulation times are shorter, there are few bleeding complications, there is a decrease of cerebral anterograde embolism, and an excellent neurological result.

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          Hypothermic circulatory arrest in operations on the thoracic aorta. Determinants of operative mortality and neurologic outcome.

          This study was undertaken to determine the factors that influence the final outcome after hypothermic circulatory arrest. Between 1985 and 1992 a uniform method of hypothermic circulatory arrest was used in 200 patients as the primary method of cerebral protection during operations on aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. There were 30 hospital deaths (15%). Age greater than 60 years (relative risk 3.7, p < 0.02), emergency operation and hemodynamic compromise (relative risk 22.2, p < 0.000), concomitant procedures (relative risk 2.7, p < 0.04), presentation with new neurologic symptoms (relative risk 5.2, p < 0.04), and postoperative permanent neurologic deficits (relative risk 9.4, p < 0.000) were found to be significant predictors of operative mortality. A total of 183 patients were available for evaluation of neurologic function and outcome. Multivariate analysis of this cohort of patients by multiple logistic regression showed that temporary neurologic dysfunction occurred in 36 cases (19%). Temporary neurologic dysfunction correlated with the duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest (47 +/- 16 minutes; odds ratio 1.06/minute; p < 0.001) and age (66 +/- 14 years; odds ratio 1.07/year; p < 0.001). Embolic strokes occurred in 22 patients (11%) and were associated with permanent deficits in 13 (7%). Strokes correlated significantly with age (older than 60, 21% versus younger than 60, 1%; p < 0.001) and operations on the arch and descending aortic aneurysms containing clot or atheroma (p < 0.001). This experience shows that the operative mortality is not affected by any parameters related to the use of hypothermic circulatory arrest. The incidence of temporary neurologic dysfunction rises linearly in relation to the age of the patient and the duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest. However, permanent neurologic injury is a result of thromboembolic events and is not related to the method of cerebral protection used. Additional methods to prevent perioperative embolic strokes are needed. Hypothermic circulatory arrest affords adequate cerebral protection if the arrest period is kept less than 60 minutes. We will continue to use this modality until the safety and utility of the alternate methods of cerebral protection are shown to be superior.
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            Hypothermic circulatory arrest and other methods of cerebral protection during operations on the thoracic aorta.

            Current surgical techniques in operations on the thoracic aorta frequently require exclusion of the cerebral circulation for varying periods. During these periods, hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA), selective cerebral perfusion (SCP), and retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) can be used for cerebral protection. Hypothermia is the principle component of these methods of protection. The main protective effect of hypothermia is based on reduction of cerebral energy expenditures and largely depends on adequate suppression of cerebral function. It is most effective at deep hypothermic levels (13 degrees C to 15 degrees C). Measures that preserve autoregulation of cerebral blood flow help increase the margin of safety with all methods of protection. There is solid experimental and clinical data indicating the safe limits and outcome following HCA. Current applications of SCP and RCP are fairly recent developments and do not have comparable supporting data. SCP can be used without deep hypothermia and allows prolonged periods of cerebral protection, but is complex in application. RCP is simpler, but always requires deep hypothermia. Present clinical data do not allow separation of its protective effect from that of HCA alone. Recent modifications in the application of HCA include monitoring of cerebral O2 extraction, and selective use of supplemental SCP to limit arrest times to less than 50 minutes, or RCP to prevent embolic strokes, as indicated. These changes appear to have reduced the overall mortality, the severity of embolic strokes, and stroke-related mortality.
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              Neurologic outcome after ascending aorta-aortic arch operations: effect of brain protection technique in high-risk patients.

              We sought to assess the optimal strategy for avoiding neurologic injury after aortic operations requiring hypothermic circulatory arrest. All 717 patients who survived ascending aorta-aortic arch operations through a median sternotomy since 1986 were examined for factors influencing stroke. Temporary neurologic dysfunction was assessed in all patients who survived the operation without stroke since 1993. Multivariate analyses were carried out to determine independent risk factors for neurologic injury. Independent risk factors for stroke were as follows: age greater than 60 years (P <.001; odds ratio, 4.5); emergency operation (P =.02; odds ratio, 2.2); new preoperative neurologic symptoms (P =.05; odds ratio, 2.9); presence of clot or atheroma (P <.001; odds ratio, 4.4); mitral valve replacement or other concomitant procedures (P =.055; odds ratio, = 3.7); and total cerebral protection time, defined as the sum of hypothermic circulatory arrest and any retrograde or antegrade cerebral perfusion (P =.001; odds ratio, 1.02/min). In 453 patients surviving operations without stroke after 1993, independent risk factors for temporary neurologic dysfunction included age (P <.001; odds ratio, 1.06/y), dissection (P =.001; odds ratio, 2.2), need for coronary artery bypass grafting (P =.006; odds ratio, 2.1) or other procedures (P =.023; odds ratio, 3.4), and total cerebral protection time (P <.001; odds ratio, 1.02/min). When all patients with total cerebral protection times between 40 and 80 minutes were examined, the method of cerebral protection did not influence the occurrence of stroke, but antegrade cerebral perfusion resulted in a significant reduction in incidence on temporary neurologic dysfunction (P =.05; odds ratio, 0.3). The occurrence of stroke is principally determined by patient- and disease-related factors, but use of antegrade cerebral perfusion can significantly reduce the occurrence of temporary neurologic dysfunction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rcca
                Revista Colombiana de Cardiología
                Rev. Colomb. Cardiol.
                Sociedad Colombiana de Cardiologia. Oficina de Publicaciones (Bogota, Cundinamarca, Colombia )
                0120-5633
                August 2007
                : 14
                : 4
                : 232-237
                Affiliations
                [02] Medellín orgnameClínica Medellín Colombia
                [01] Manizales orgnameHospital Santa Sofía Colombia
                Article
                S0120-56332007000400007 S0120-5633(07)01400407
                2d11726b-5d0d-470b-8655-597a0ae0af05

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 16 April 2007
                : 03 April 2006
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 19, Pages: 6
                Product

                SciELO Colombia

                Categories
                Trabajos libres - Cirugía cardiovascular del adulto

                perfusión anterógrada,canulación subclavia,reconstrucción del arco aórtico,anterograde perfusion,subclavian canula,reconstruction of aortic arch

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