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      Toward more focused multimodal and multidisciplinary approaches for pain management in Parkinson’s disease

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          In Parkinson’s disease (PD), pain represents a significant issue in terms of prevalence, clinical features, and treatment. Painful manifestations not strictly related to the disease are often amplified by the motor dysfunction. On the other hand, typical pain problems may specifically concern this vulnerable population. In turn, pain may have a deep impact on patients’ health-related quality of life. However, pain treatment in PD remains an unmet need as only about half of patients with pain use analgesics and pain is often managed by simply increasing doses of PD medications. In this complex scenario, pain treatments should follow multimodal approaches through a careful combination of pharmacological agents with non-pharmacological strategies, depending on the type of pain and the clinical context. A multidisciplinary approach involving medical specialists from different disciplines could be a winning strategy to address the issue. This work is aimed to provide practical suggestions useful for different types of clinicians and care professionals for pain management in this vulnerable population.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Parkinson's disease: the non-motor issues.

          Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease remain the most under-appreciated and under-researched when taken as a whole. Data is emerging that it is the "totaL" burden of NMS that is the major determinant of quality of life not a single NMS such as depression for instance. Only recently validated tools such as the NMSQuest which empowers patients to declare NMS and the NMS scale, the SCOPA scales, and the modified version of the MDS-UPDRS have become available and validated for bedside clinical assessment of NMS. For the first time clinical trials have been incorporating non-motor measures as outcome measures and clinical recommendations for treatment of non-motor symptoms of PD are being published. This review aims to address some of these topical and "real life" aspects of modern day management of Parkinson's. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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            Prevalence of pain in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review using the modified QUADAS tool.

            Pain has been studied more intensely as a symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) in recent years. However, studies on the characteristics and prevalence of pain in PD have yielded conflicting results, prompting us to do a systematic review of the literature. A systematic review of the literature was conducted, using different databases. The last inclusion date was March 15, 2011. The modified Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool was used, which is especially designed for judging prevalence studies on their methodological quality. Only articles that met the predefined criteria were used in this review. We found 18 articles, of which only 8 met the methodological criteria. Prevalence frequency ranges from 40% to 85% with a mean of 67.6%. Pain is most frequently located in the lower limbs, with almost one-half of all PD patients complaining about musculoskeletal pain (46.4%). The pain fluctuates with on-off periods. Surprisingly, only 52.4% of PD patients with pain used analgesics, most often nonopioids. PD patients seem to be predisposed to develop pain and physicians should be aware of pain as a common feature of PD. As many as one-half of PD patients with pain may be missing out on a potentially useful treatment, and proper treatment could increase quality of life in PD patients. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.
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              Neurophysiologic study of central pain in patients with Parkinson disease.

              Patients with Parkinson disease (PD) may present with various types of pain. In some instances, no cause can be identified and pain is considered a primary disorder (primary central pain [PCP]). We hypothesized that PCP in patients with PD (PD-PCP) may be due to a dysfunction of pain pathways or the processing of pain inputs in the CNS. We carried out a psychophysical and neurophysiologic study in 9 patients with PD-PCP, 9 patients with PD without pain (PD-NoP), and 9 healthy control subjects. We assessed the clinical characteristics of pain, performed quantitative sensory testing with thermal probes, and recorded laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser-induced sudomotor skin responses (1-SSRs) in "off" and "on" conditions. In "off" condition, patients with PD-PCP had lower heat pain and laser pinprick thresholds, higher LEP amplitudes, and less habituation of the l-SSR in comparison with PD-NoP patients and control subjects. Abnormalities were more marked in the most affected side. In "on" condition, psychophysical and neurophysiologic differences disappeared or were significantly attenuated. Conduction along peripheral and central pain pathways is normal in patients with Parkinson disease with or without primary central pain. However, apart from signs of hyperalgesia, our patients exhibited lack of habituation of sympathetic sudomotor responses to repetitive pain stimuli, suggesting an abnormal control of the effects of pain inputs on autonomic centers. Abnormalities were attenuated by l-dopa, suggesting that the dysfunction may occur in dopamine-dependent centers regulating both autonomic function and inhibitory modulation of pain inputs.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                22 July 2019
                : 12
                : 2201-2209
                [1 ]Division of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale , Naples, Italy
                [2 ]S.C. Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale , Naples, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Human Neuroscience, University Sapienza , Rome, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Science and Translational Medicine, Tor Vergata University of Rome , Rome, Italy
                [5 ]U.O. Alzheimer, IRCCS Centro San Giovanni di Dio-Fatebenefratelli , Brescia, Italy
                [6 ]Center for Neurodegenerative Disease-CEMAND, University of Salerno , Fisciano, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Anna CrispoS.C. Epidemiologia e Biostatistica, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale via Mariano Semmola , Naples80131, ItalyTel +39 081 590 3395Email a.crispo@ 123456istitutotumori.na.it
                © 2019 Cuomo et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

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                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 55, Pages: 9
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