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      CDC73 mutational status and loss of parafibromin in the outcome of parathyroid cancer


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          Inactivating mutations of the CDC73 tumor suppressor gene have been reported in parathyroid carcinomas (PC), in association with the loss of nuclear expression of the encoded protein, parafibromin. The aim of this study was to further investigate the role of the CDC73 gene in PC and evaluate whether gene carrier status and/or the loss of parafibromin staining might have an effect on the outcome of the disease. We performed genetic and immunohistochemical studies in parathyroid tumor samples from 35 patients with sporadic PC. Nonsense or frameshift CDC73 mutations were detected in 13 samples suitable for DNA sequencing. Six of these mutations were germline. Loss of parafibromin expression was found in 17 samples. The presence of the CDC73 mutation as well as the loss of parafibromin predicted a high likelihood of subsequent recurrence and/or metastasis (92.3%, P=0.049 and 94.1%, P=0.0017 respectively), but only the latter was associated with a decreased overall 5- and 10-year survival rates (59%, P=0.107, and 23%, P=0.0026 respectively). The presence of both the CDC73 mutation and loss of parafibromin staining compared with their absence predicted a lower overall survival at 10- (18 vs 84%, P=0.016) but not at 5-year follow-up. In conclusion, loss of parafibromin staining, better than CDC73 mutation, predicts the clinical outcome and mortality rate. The added value of CDC73 mutational analysis is the possibility of identifying germline mutations, which will prompt the screening of other family members.

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          HRPT2, encoding parafibromin, is mutated in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome.

          We report here the identification of a gene associated with the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome. A single locus associated with HPT-JT (HRPT2) was previously mapped to chromosomal region 1q25-q32. We refined this region to a critical interval of 12 cM by genotyping in 26 affected kindreds. Using a positional candidate approach, we identified thirteen different heterozygous, germline, inactivating mutations in a single gene in fourteen families with HPT-JT. The proposed role of HRPT2 as a tumor suppressor was supported by mutation screening in 48 parathyroid adenomas with cystic features, which identified three somatic inactivating mutations, all located in exon 1. None of these mutations were detected in normal controls, and all were predicted to cause deficient or impaired protein function. HRPT2 is a ubiquitously expressed, evolutionarily conserved gene encoding a predicted protein of 531 amino acids, for which we propose the name parafibromin. Our findings suggest that HRPT2 is a tumor-suppressor gene, the inactivation of which is directly involved in predisposition to HPT-JT and in development of some sporadic parathyroid tumors.
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            Somatic and germ-line mutations of the HRPT2 gene in sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.

            We looked for mutations of the HRPT2 gene, which encodes the parafibromin protein, in sporadic parathyroid carcinoma because germ-line inactivating HRPT2 mutations have been found in a type of familial hyperparathyroidism--hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome--that carries an increased risk of parathyroid cancer. We directly sequenced the full coding and flanking splice-junctional regions of the HRPT2 gene in 21 parathyroid carcinomas from 15 patients who had no known family history of primary hyperparathyroidism or the HPT-JT syndrome at presentation. We also sought to confirm the somatic nature of the identified mutations and tested the carcinomas for tumor-specific loss of heterozygosity at HRPT2. Parathyroid carcinomas from 10 of the 15 patients had HRPT2 mutations, all of which were predicted to inactivate the encoded parafibromin protein. Two distinct HRPT2 mutations were found in tumors from five patients, and biallelic inactivation as a result of a mutation and loss of heterozygosity was found in one tumor. At least one HRPT2 mutation was demonstrably somatic in carcinomas from six patients. Unexpectedly, HRPT2 mutations in the parathyroid carcinomas of three patients were identified as germ-line mutations. Sporadic parathyroid carcinomas frequently have HRPT2 mutations that are likely to be of pathogenetic importance. Certain patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid carcinoma carry germ-line mutations in HRPT2 and may have the HPT-JT syndrome or a phenotypic variant. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Parathyroid carcinoma. A study of 70 cases.


                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                BioScientifica (Bristol )
                18 November 2013
                01 December 2013
                : 2
                : 4
                : 186-195
                [1 ]Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine University of Pisa Via Paradisa 2, PisaItaly
                [2 ]Section of Pathology, Department of Oncology University of Pisa Via Paradisa 2, PisaItaly
                [3 ]Department of Surgical Medical and Molecular Pathology and Critical Area University of Pisa PisaItaly
                [4 ]Surgery Unit, Surgical Oncology and Gastroenterology Sciences University of Padua PaduaItaly
                [5 ]Medicine University of Padua PaduaItaly
                [6 ]General Surgery 3 and Esophageal Surgery University of Turin TurinItaly
                [7 ]Clinical and Biological Sciences University of Turin TurinItaly
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to F Cetani Email: cetani@ 123456endoc.med.unipi.it
                © 2013 The Authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License

                : 17 September 2013
                : 30 September 2013

                survival,primary hyperparathyroidism,parathyroid tumorigenesis,immunostaining


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