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      Effect of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Inflammatory Cytokine Levels in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis

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          Abstract

          Objective

          This study aimed to compare and rank the effectiveness of aerobic exercise (AE), resistance training (RT), combined aerobic and resistance training (CT), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and inflammatory cytokine levels in overweight and obese individuals by using network meta-analysis (NMA).

          Methods

          We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and EBSCO databases to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of exercise training on inflammatory cytokines in overweight and obese patients. The retrieval period was from inception to November 2021. Two reviewers independently screened the retrieved articles, extracted the pertinent data, and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies; then, they used Stata 16.0 and Review Manager 5.3 to perform an NMA.

          Results

          A total of 38 studies involving 1317 patients were included in this study. The results of the NMA indicated that AE had the greatest effect on weight loss (SUCRA=78.3; SMD=−0.51, 95% CI: −0.70, −0.33); CT had the greatest effect on reducing body mass index (SUCRA=70.7; SMD=−0.46, 95% CI: −0.81, −0.10), waist circumference (SUCRA=93.4; SMD=−1.86, 95% CI: −2.80, −0.93), percentage body fat (SUCRA=79.6; SMD=−1.38, 95% CI: −2.29, −0.48), interleukin-6 level (SUCRA=86.4; SMD=−1.98, 95% CI: −3.87, −0.09), and tumor necrosis factor-α level (SUCRA=79.4; SMD=−2.08, 95% CI: −3.75, −0.42); AE (SMD=0.51, 95% CI: −1.68, 2.69), RT (SMD=0.15, 95% CI: −3.01, 3.32), CT (SMD=1.78, 95% CI: −1.35, 4.92), and HIIT (SMD=2.29, 95% CI: −1.27, 5.86) did not significantly increase the adiponectin level.

          Conclusion

          The current results suggest that CT is the best exercise modality for improving body composition and inflammatory status in overweight and obese individuals. More rigorous randomized control trials are needed for further validation.

          Systematic Review Registration

          https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/, identifier CRD42022303165.

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          Most cited references92

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          The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials

          Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate
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            Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19·2 million participants

            Summary Background Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries. Methods We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18·5 kg/m2 [underweight], 18·5 kg/m2 to <20 kg/m2, 20 kg/m2 to <25 kg/m2, 25 kg/m2 to <30 kg/m2, 30 kg/m2 to <35 kg/m2, 35 kg/m2 to <40 kg/m2, ≥40 kg/m2 [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue. Findings We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21·7 kg/m2 (95% credible interval 21·3–22·1) in 1975 to 24·2 kg/m2 (24·0–24·4) in 2014 in men, and from 22·1 kg/m2 (21·7–22·5) in 1975 to 24·4 kg/m2 (24·2–24·6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21·4 kg/m2 in central Africa and south Asia to 29·2 kg/m2 (28·6–29·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21·8 kg/m2 (21·4–22·3) in south Asia to 32·2 kg/m2 (31·5–32·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13·8% (10·5–17·4) to 8·8% (7·4–10·3) in men and from 14·6% (11·6–17·9) to 9·7% (8·3–11·1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23·4% (17·8–29·2) in men and 24·0% (18·9–29·3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3·2% (2·4–4·1) in 1975 to 10·8% (9·7–12·0) in 2014 in men, and from 6·4% (5·1–7·8) to 14·9% (13·6–16·1) in women. 2·3% (2·0–2·7) of the world’s men and 5·0% (4·4–5·6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0·64% (0·46–0·86) in men and 1·6% (1·3–1·9) in women. Interpretation If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world’s poorest regions, especially in south Asia. Funding Wellcome Trust, Grand Challenges Canada.
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              The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions: checklist and explanations.

              The PRISMA statement is a reporting guideline designed to improve the completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have used this guideline worldwide to prepare their reviews for publication. In the past, these reports typically compared 2 treatment alternatives. With the evolution of systematic reviews that compare multiple treatments, some of them only indirectly, authors face novel challenges for conducting and reporting their reviews. This extension of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement was developed specifically to improve the reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses. A group of experts participated in a systematic review, Delphi survey, and face-to-face discussion and consensus meeting to establish new checklist items for this extension statement. Current PRISMA items were also clarified. A modified, 32-item PRISMA extension checklist was developed to address what the group considered to be immediately relevant to the reporting of network meta-analyses. This document presents the extension and provides examples of good reporting, as well as elaborations regarding the rationale for new checklist items and the modification of previously existing items from the PRISMA statement. It also highlights educational information related to key considerations in the practice of network meta-analysis. The target audience includes authors and readers of network meta-analyses, as well as journal editors and peer reviewers.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                23 June 2022
                2022
                : 13
                : 921085
                Affiliations
                [1] 1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University , Beijing, China
                [2] 2 Department of Physical Health and Arts Education, Ministry of Education , Beijing, China
                [3] 3 China Institute of Sport and Health Science, Beijing Sport University , Beijing, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Tuo Deng, Central South University, China

                Reviewed by: Mousa Khalafi, University of Kashan, Iran; Nicola Marotta, Magna Græcia University, Italy; Wang Ru, Shanghai University of Sport, China

                *Correspondence: Hui He, he_hui0402@ 123456126.com

                This article was submitted to Inflammation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2022.921085
                9260601
                35812437
                2d25d787-c478-4cab-a873-76a052e0964e
                Copyright © 2022 Wang, Zhou, Zhao and He

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 15 April 2022
                : 25 May 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 92, Pages: 13, Words: 6467
                Categories
                Immunology
                Systematic Review

                Immunology
                exercise,body composition,inflammatory cytokine,overweight and obese individuals,network meta-analysis

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