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      Adaptive Evolution in the Glucose Transporter 4 Gene Slc2a4 in Old World Fruit Bats (Family: Pteropodidae)

      1 , 1 , 1 , 2 , 1 , *

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Frugivorous and nectarivorous bats are able to ingest large quantities of sugar in a short time span while avoiding the potentially adverse side-effects of elevated blood glucose. The glucose transporter 4 protein (GLUT4) encoded by the Slc2a4 gene plays a critical role in transmembrane skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus glucose homeostasis. To test whether the Slc2a4 gene has undergone adaptive evolution in bats with carbohydrate-rich diets in relation to their insect-eating sister taxa, we sequenced the coding region of the Slc2a4 gene in a number of bat species, including four Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) and three New World fruit bats (Phyllostomidae). Our molecular evolutionary analyses revealed evidence that Slc2a4 has undergone a change in selection pressure in Old World fruit bats with 11 amino acid substitutions detected on the ancestral branch, whereas, no positive selection was detected in the New World fruit bats. We noted that in the former group, amino acid replacements were biased towards either Serine or Isoleucine, and, of the 11 changes, six were specific to Old World fruit bats (A133S, A164S, V377F, V386I, V441I and G459S). Our study presents preliminary evidence that the Slc2a4 gene has undergone adaptive changes in Old World fruit bats in relation to their ability to meet the demands of a high sugar diet.

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          Most cited references 54

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          MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0.

          We announce the release of the fourth version of MEGA software, which expands on the existing facilities for editing DNA sequence data from autosequencers, mining Web-databases, performing automatic and manual sequence alignment, analyzing sequence alignments to estimate evolutionary distances, inferring phylogenetic trees, and testing evolutionary hypotheses. Version 4 includes a unique facility to generate captions, written in figure legend format, in order to provide natural language descriptions of the models and methods used in the analyses. This facility aims to promote a better understanding of the underlying assumptions used in analyses, and of the results generated. Another new feature is the Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) method for estimating evolutionary distances between all pairs of sequences simultaneously, with and without incorporating rate variation among sites and substitution pattern heterogeneities among lineages. This MCL method also can be used to estimate transition/transversion bias and nucleotide substitution pattern without knowledge of the phylogenetic tree. This new version is a native 32-bit Windows application with multi-threading and multi-user supports, and it is also available to run in a Linux desktop environment (via the Wine compatibility layer) and on Intel-based Macintosh computers under the Parallels program. The current version of MEGA is available free of charge at (http://www.megasoftware.net).
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            MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

            MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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              PAML 4: phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood.

               Ziheng Yang (2007)
              PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which can be used to estimate parameters in models of sequence evolution and to test interesting biological hypotheses. Uses of the programs include estimation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates (d(N) and d(S)) between two protein-coding DNA sequences, inference of positive Darwinian selection through phylogenetic comparison of protein-coding genes, reconstruction of ancestral genes and proteins for molecular restoration studies of extinct life forms, combined analysis of heterogeneous data sets from multiple gene loci, and estimation of species divergence times incorporating uncertainties in fossil calibrations. This note discusses some of the major applications of the package, which includes example data sets to demonstrate their use. The package is written in ANSI C, and runs under Windows, Mac OSX, and UNIX systems. It is available at -- (http://abacus.gene.ucl.ac.uk/software/paml.html).
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                6 April 2012
                : 7
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Molecular Ecology and Evolution, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom
                University of Western Ontario, Canada
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: BS XH SZ. Performed the experiments: BS XH. Analyzed the data: BS XH SJR. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SZ. Wrote the paper: BS SJR SZ. Bat species sampling: JZ.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-21443
                10.1371/journal.pone.0033197
                3320886
                22493665
                Shen et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Transmembrane Transport Proteins
                Computational Biology
                Sequence Analysis
                Evolutionary Biology
                Evolutionary Processes
                Adaptation
                Evolutionary Selection
                Natural Selection
                Forms of Evolution
                Microevolution
                Evolutionary Genetics
                Genetics
                Animal Genetics
                Molecular Cell Biology
                Signal Transduction
                Signaling in Cellular Processes
                Glucose Signaling

                Uncategorized

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