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Quantum spin liquid and electric quadrupolar states of single crystal Tb\(_{2+x}\)Ti\(_{2-x}\)O\(_{7+y}\)

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      Abstract

      The ground states of the frustrated pyrochlore oxide Tb\(_{2+x}\)Ti\(_{2-x}\)O\(_{7+y}\), sensitively depending on the small off-stoichiometry parameter \(x\), have been studied by specific heat measurements using well characterized samples. Single crystal Tb\(_{2+x}\)Ti\(_{2-x}\)O\(_{7+y}\) boules grown by the standard floating zone technique are shown to exhibit concentration (\(x\)) gradient. This off-stoichiometry parameter is determined by precisely measuring the lattice constant of small samples cut from a crystal boule. Specific heat shows that the phase boundary of the electric quadrupolar state has a dome structure in the \(x\)-\(T\) phase diagram with the highest \(T_{\text{c}} \simeq 0.5\) K at about \(x = 0.01\). This phase diagram suggests that the putative U(1) quantum spin-liquid state of Tb\(_{2+x}\)Ti\(_{2-x}\)O\(_{7+y}\) exists in the range \(x<x_{\text{c}} \simeq -0.0025 \), which is separated from the quadrupolar state via a first-order phase-transition line \(x=x_{\text{c}}\).

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      Journal
      2015-09-15
      2016-02-01
      1509.04583
      10.1088/1742-6596/683/1/012023

      http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

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      J. Phys.: Conf. Series 683, 012023 (2016)
      5 pages, 4 figures
      cond-mat.str-el

      Condensed matter

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