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      Relação entre níveis de fluoreto na água de abastecimento público e fluorose dental Translated title: Relationship between fluoride levels in the public water supply and dental fluorosis


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          OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da fluorose dentária em escolares sujeitos a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto na água de abastecimento público das suas cidades. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta de 386 escolares de sete anos de idade, moradores de dois municípios do estado de São Paulo que realizaram heterocontrole da fluoretação da água de 1998 a 2002, um deles apresentando concentração homogênea de fluoreto e o outro oscilante. Fluorose dental foi determinada examinando os incisivos superiores permanentes (secos) pelo índice de Dean, o grau de fluorose classificado como questionável foi considerado como fluorose. Variáveis sociodemográficas e questões sobre saúde bucal foram avaliadas com questionário estruturado enviado aos pais/responsáveis. Associações foram verificadas por meio de regressão logística múltipla (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: Ambos os municípios apresentaram grau leve de fluorose. A prevalência de fluorose no município com teores oscilantes de flúor na água foi de 31,4% e no município com teores homogêneos foi de 79,9%. A prevalência de fluorose foi associada com o município com teores de flúor homogêneos na água (OR=8,33, IC 95%: 5,15;13,45) e não possuir automóvel (OR=2,10, IC 95%: 1,27;3,49) CONCLUSÕES: Embora a prevalência de fluorose tenha sido maior nas crianças do município que possuía melhor controle da concentração ótima de fluoreto na água, esta não afetou a estética dental dos comprometidos.

          Translated abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among schoolchildren subjected to different fluoride concentrations in the public water supply of their cities. METHODS: The sample comprised 386 seven-year-old schoolchildren living in two municipalities in the State of São Paulo that practiced external control over the fluoridation of the water from 1998 to 2002: one with homogenous fluoride concentration and the other with oscillating concentration. Dental fluorosis was determined by dry examination of the upper permanent incisors using Dean's index. Scores classified as questionable were considered to represent fluorosis. Sociodemographic variables and questions regarding oral health were assessed using a structured questionnaire sent to the children's parents or the adults responsible for these children. Correlates of fluorosis were assessed using multivariate logistic regression (p<0.05). RESULTS: Both municipalities presented a mild degree of fluorosis. The prevalence of fluorosis in the municipality with oscillating fluoride content in the water was 31.4%, and it was 79.9% in the municipality with homogenous fluoride content. The prevalence of fluorosis was associated with the municipality with homogeneous fluoride levels in the water (OR=8.33, 95% CI: 5.15;13.45) and with not owning a car (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27;3.49). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was higher in the city with better control of fluoride levels in the water supply, however, this higher prevalence was not related with children's satisfaction with the appearance of their teeth.

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          Most cited references20

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          Applied Logistic Regression.

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            Dental Fluorosis: Chemistry and Biology

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              The nature and mechanisms of dental fluorosis in man.

              Any use of fluorides, whether systemic or topical, in caries prevention and treatment in children results in ingestion and absorption of fluoride into the blood circulation. The mineralization of teeth under formation may be affected so that dental fluorosis may occur. Dental fluorosis reflects an increasing porosity of the surface and subsurface enamel, causing the enamel to appear opaque. The clinical features represent a continuum of changes ranging from fine white opaque lines running across the tooth on all parts of the enamel to entirely chalky white teeth. In the latter cases, the enamel may be so porous (or hypomineralized) that the outer enamel breaks apart posteruptively and the exposed porous subsurface enamel becomes discolored. These changes can be classified clinically by the TF index to reflect, in an ordinal scale, the histopathological changes associated with dental fluorosis. Compared with Dean's and the TSIF index, we consider the TF index to be more precise. Recent studies on human enamel representing the entire spectrum of dental fluorosis have demonstrated a clear association between increasing TF score and increasing fluoride content of the enamel. So far, no useful data on dose (expressed in mg fluoride/kg b.w.)-response (dental fluorosis) relationships are available. In this paper, we have, therefore, re-evaluated the original data by Dean et al. (1941, 1942), Richards et al. (1967), and Butler et al. (1985) from the USA, by applying the equation of Galagan and Vermillion (1957) which permits the calculation of water intake as a function of temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

                Author and article information

                Revista de Saúde Pública
                Rev. Saúde Pública
                Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil )
                October 2007
                : 41
                : 5
                : 732-739
                [02] Campinas SP orgnamePontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas orgdiv1Faculdade de Odontologia Brasil
                [01] Piracicaba SP orgnameUniversidade Estadual de Campinas orgdiv1Faculdade de Odontologia de Piracicaba Brasil
                S0034-89102007000500007 S0034-8910(07)04100507

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 20, Pages: 8
                Artigos Originais

                Water supply,Fluorosis,Child,Fluoração,Abastecimento de água,Criança,Fluorose dentária,Fluoridation


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