Abnormalities of trace elements such as aluminum, silicon, zinc, manganese and nickel were found in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. The relationship between serum concentration of trace elements and complications such as anemia bone disease, neurological disorder and nutritional disorder in 100 chronic HD patients was examined. Serum Al and Si levels were very high in these patients, and were negatively correlated with indicators of anemia such as RBC, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Serum Al and Si levels in the HD patients with peripheral neurological disorder (excluding encephalopathy) and with bone disease were significantly high. The levels of serum Zn, Mn and Ni were low, and were correlated with total serum protein levels. In summary, in order to prevent some complications in chronic HD patients, it is very important to regulate levels of trace elements.