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      Antituberculosis therapy-induced acute liver failure: magnitude, profile, prognosis, and predictors of outcome.

      Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
      Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Antitubercular Agents, adverse effects, Female, Hepatitis E, complications, Humans, India, epidemiology, Isoniazid, Liver Failure, Acute, chemically induced, mortality, pathology, Male, Middle Aged, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, Treatment Outcome

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          Antituberculosis therapy (ATT)-associated acute liver failure (ATT-ALF) is the commonest drug-induced ALF in South Asia. Prospective studies on ATT-ALF are lacking. The current study prospectively evaluated the magnitude, clinical course, outcome, and prognostic factors in ATT-ALF. From January 1986 to January 2009, 1223 consecutive ALF patients were evaluated: ATT alone was the cause in 70 (5.7%) patients. Another 15 (1.2%) had ATT and simultaneous hepatitis virus infection. In 44 (62.8%) patients, ATT was prescribed empirically without definitive evidence of tuberculosis. ATT-ALF patients were younger (32.87 [+/-15.8] years), and 49 (70%) of them were women. Most had hyperacute presentation; the median icterus encephalopathy interval was 4.5 (0-30) days. The median duration of ATT before ALF was 30 (7-350) days. At presentation, advanced encephalopathy and cerebral edema were present in 51 (76%) and 29 (41.4%) patients, respectively. Gastrointestinal bleed, seizures, infection, and acute renal failure were documented in seven (10%), five (7.1%), 26 (37.1%), and seven (10%) patients, respectively. Compared with hepatitis E virus (HEV) and non-A non-E-induced ALF, ATT-ALF patients had nearly similar presentations except for older age and less elevation of liver enzymes. The mortality rate among patients with ATT-ALF was high (67.1%, n = 47), and only 23 (32.9%) patients recovered with medical treatment. In multivariate analysis, three factors independently predicted mortality: serum bilirubin (>or=10.8 mg/dL), prothrombin time (PT) prolongation (>or=26 seconds), and grade III/IV encephalopathy at presentation. ATT-ALF constituted 5.7% of ALF at our center and had a high mortality rate. Because the mortality rate is so high, determining which factors are predictors is less important. A high proportion of patients had consumed ATT empirically, which could have been prevented.

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