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      A Review of Particle Shape Effects on Material Properties for Various Engineering Applications: From Macro to Nanoscale

      Minerals
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          It is well known that most particle technology studies attempting to predict secondary properties based on primary properties such as size and shape begin with particle characterization, which means the process of determining the primary properties of particles in a wide spectrum from macro to nanoscale. It is a fact that the actual shape of engineering particles used in many industrial applications or processes is neglected, as they are assumed to be “homogeneous spheres” with easily understood behavior in any application or process. In addition, it is vital to control the granular materials used in various industries or to prepare them in desired shapes, to develop better processes or final products, and to make the processes practical and economical. Therefore, this review not only covers basic shape definitions, shape characterization methods, and the effect of particle shape on industrial material properties, but also provides insight into the development of the most suitably shaped materials for specific applications or processes (from nanomaterials used in pharmaceuticals to proppant particles used in hydrocarbon production) by understanding the behavior of particles.

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            Adsorption of Gases in Multimolecular Layers

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              Review on nanoparticles and nanostructured materials: history, sources, toxicity and regulations

              Nanomaterials (NMs) have gained prominence in technological advancements due to their tunable physical, chemical and biological properties with enhanced performance over their bulk counterparts. NMs are categorized depending on their size, composition, shape, and origin. The ability to predict the unique properties of NMs increases the value of each classification. Due to increased growth of production of NMs and their industrial applications, issues relating to toxicity are inevitable. The aim of this review is to compare synthetic (engineered) and naturally occurring nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructured materials (NSMs) to identify their nanoscale properties and to define the specific knowledge gaps related to the risk assessment of NPs and NSMs in the environment. The review presents an overview of the history and classifications of NMs and gives an overview of the various sources of NPs and NSMs, from natural to synthetic, and their toxic effects towards mammalian cells and tissue. Additionally, the types of toxic reactions associated with NPs and NSMs and the regulations implemented by different countries to reduce the associated risks are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MBSIBI
                Minerals
                Minerals
                MDPI AG
                2075-163X
                January 2023
                January 06 2023
                : 13
                : 1
                : 91
                Article
                10.3390/min13010091
                2d64297d-a2da-4548-ac20-ab1c22b81c19
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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