136
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    1
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Re-epithelialization and immune cell behaviour in an ex vivo human skin model

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          A large body of literature is available on wound healing in humans. Nonetheless, a standardized ex vivo wound model without disruption of the dermal compartment has not been put forward with compelling justification. Here, we present a novel wound model based on application of negative pressure and its effects for epidermal regeneration and immune cell behaviour. Importantly, the basement membrane remained intact after blister roof removal and keratinocytes were absent in the wounded area. Upon six days of culture, the wound was covered with one to three-cell thick K14 +Ki67 + keratinocyte layers, indicating that proliferation and migration were involved in wound closure. After eight to twelve days, a multi-layered epidermis was formed expressing epidermal differentiation markers (K10, filaggrin, DSG-1, CDSN). Investigations about immune cell-specific manners revealed more T cells in the blister roof epidermis compared to normal epidermis. We identified several cell populations in blister roof epidermis and suction blister fluid that are absent in normal epidermis which correlated with their decrease in the dermis, indicating a dermal efflux upon negative pressure. Together, our model recapitulates the main features of epithelial wound regeneration, and can be applied for testing wound healing therapies and investigating underlying mechanisms.

          Related collections

          Most cited references47

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Filaggrin in the frontline: role in skin barrier function and disease.

          Recently, loss-of-function mutations in FLG, the human gene encoding profilaggrin and filaggrin, have been identified as the cause of the common skin condition ichthyosis vulgaris (which is characterised by dry, scaly skin). These mutations, which are carried by up to 10% of people, also represent a strong genetic predisposing factor for atopic eczema, asthma and allergies. Profilaggrin is the major component of the keratohyalin granules within epidermal granular cells. During epidermal terminal differentiation, the approximately 400 kDa profilaggrin polyprotein is dephosphorylated and rapidly cleaved by serine proteases to form monomeric filaggrin (37 kDa), which binds to and condenses the keratin cytoskeleton and thereby contributes to the cell compaction process that is required for squame biogenesis. Within the squames, filaggrin is citrullinated, which promotes its unfolding and further degradation into hygroscopic amino acids, which constitute one element of natural moisturising factor. Loss of profilaggrin or filaggrin leads to a poorly formed stratum corneum (ichthyosis), which is also prone to water loss (xerosis). Recent human genetic studies strongly suggest that perturbation of skin barrier function as a result of reduction or complete loss of filaggrin expression leads to enhanced percutaneous transfer of allergens. Filaggrin is therefore in the frontline of defence, and protects the body from the entry of foreign environmental substances that can otherwise trigger aberrant immune responses.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A structural scaffolding of intermediate filaments in health and disease.

            The cytoplasm of animal cells is structured by a scaffolding composed of actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Intermediate filaments, so named because their 10-nanometer diameter is intermediate between that of microfilaments (6 nanometers) and microtubules (23 nanometers), assemble into an anastomosed network within the cytoplasm. In combination with a recently identified class of cross-linking proteins that mediate interactions between intermediate filaments and the other cytoskeletal networks, evidence is reviewed here that intermediate filaments provide a flexible intracellular scaffolding whose function is to structure cytoplasm and to resist stresses externally applied to the cell. Mutations that weaken this structural framework increase the risk of cell rupture and cause a variety of human disorders.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              CD56 in the Immune System: More Than a Marker for Cytotoxicity?

              Over the past years, the phenotypic and functional boundaries distinguishing the main cell subsets of the immune system have become increasingly blurred. In this respect, CD56 (also known as neural cell adhesion molecule) is a very good example. CD56 is the archetypal phenotypic marker of natural killer cells but can actually be expressed by many more immune cells, including alpha beta T cells, gamma delta T cells, dendritic cells, and monocytes. Common to all these CD56-expressing cell types are strong immunostimulatory effector functions, including T helper 1 cytokine production and an efficient cytotoxic capacity. Interestingly, both numerical and functional deficiencies and phenotypic alterations of the CD56+ immune cell fraction have been reported in patients with various infectious, autoimmune, or malignant diseases. In this review, we will discuss our current knowledge on the expression and function of CD56 in the hematopoietic system, both in health and disease.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                adelheid.elbe-buerger@meduniwien.ac.at
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                8 January 2020
                8 January 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9259 8492, GRID grid.22937.3d, Department of Dermatology, , Medical University of Vienna, ; Vienna, Austria
                [2 ]Department of Plastic, Aesthetic and Reconstructive Surgery, St. Josef Hospital, Vienna, Austria
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6892-925X
                Article
                56847
                10.1038/s41598-019-56847-4
                6959339
                31913322
                2d668b56-eb69-4dae-a865-902335c0d77f
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 18 September 2019
                : 10 December 2019
                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Scientific Fund of the Mayor of the City of Vienna: 18045 (to J.M.)
                Categories
                Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                applied immunology,immunological techniques
                Uncategorized
                applied immunology, immunological techniques

                Comments

                Comment on this article