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      Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections , Translated title: Ruptura prematura das membranas fetais pré-termo: associação com fatores sociodemográficos e infecções geniturinárias maternas ,

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE:tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections.METHODS:this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression.RESULTS:of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43), age > 29 years (PR = 2.49), and smokers (PR = 2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68) and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge.CONCLUSIONS:the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a ocorrência da ruptura prematura das membranas fetais pré-termo em gestações únicas e sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos maternos e infecções geniturinárias autorreferidas.MÉTODOS: estudo transversal de base populacional onde foram incluídas todas as mães dos recém-nascidos dos partos únicos ocorridos no ano de 2010, com peso ao nascer igual ou superior a 500 gramas, residentes no município. As puérperas foram entrevistadas nas duas maternidades da cidade. Foram considerados casos as gestantes que perderam líquido amniótico antes da internação hospitalar e cujo tempo de gestação fosse inferior a 37 semanas. Foi realizada análise estatística por níveis, para controle de fatores de confusão por meio da regressão de Poisson.RESULTADOS: das 2.244 mulheres elegíveis para o estudo, 3,1% apresentaram ruptura prematura das membranas fetais pré-termo, a qual foi mais frequente, após ajuste, nas mulheres de menor nível econômico, razão de prevalência (RP) de 1,94, menor escolaridade, RP de 2,43, com idade superior a 29 anos, RP de 2,49 e tabagistas, RP de 2,04. Também esteve relacionada com ameaça de aborto, RP de 1,68, e de trabalho de parto pré-termo, RP de 3,40. Não houve associação com infecção urinária materna ou presença de corrimento genital.CONCLUSÕES: o desfecho foi mais frequente nas puérperas com menor escolaridade, mais pobres, mais velhas e tabagistas, assim como naquelas com histórico de ameaça de abortamento e trabalho de parto prematuro. Estes fatores devem ser considerados na sua abordagem preventiva, diagnóstica e terapêutica.

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          Critério de classificação econômica Brasil

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            Pré-natal e peruerpério atenção qualificada e humanizada: manual técnico

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              Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses.

              The purpose of this study was to estimate, using meta-analysis, pooled odds ratios for the effects of smoking on five pregnancy complications: placenta previa, abruptio placenta, ectopic pregnancy, preterm premature rupture of the membrane (PPROM), and pre-eclampsia. Published articles were identified through computer search and literature review. Five criteria were applied to those studies initially identified to determine those eligible for the meta-analysis. A random effects model was applied to derive pooled odds ratios for the eligible studies for each pregnancy complication. Meta-analyses were repeated on subsets of the studies to confirm the overall results. Smoking was found to be strongly associated with an elevated risk or placenta previa, abruptio placenta, ectopic pregnancy, and PPROM, and a decreased risk of pre-eclampsia. All pooled odds ratios were statistically significant. The pooled ratios ranged from 1.58 for placenta previa to 1.77 for ectopic pregnancy. The pooled odds ratio for pre-eclampsia was 0.51 and all subset analyses confirmed this seemingly protective effect. Smoking during pregnancy is a significant and preventable factor affecting ectopic pregnancy, placental abruption, placenta previa, and PPROM. The findings of smoking's apparently protective effect on pre-eclampsia should be balanced with these harmful effects. In addition, the biological linkage between smoking and pre-eclampsia is not yet well understood. Pregnant women should be advised to stop smoking in order to reduce the overall risk of pregnancy complications as well as any risk of adverse impact on the unborn child.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                jped
                Jornal de Pediatria
                J. Pediatr. (Rio J.)
                Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (Porto Alegre )
                1678-4782
                April 2014
                : 90
                : 2
                : 197-202
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Católica de Pelotas Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Brazil
                Article
                S0021-75572014000200197
                10.1016/j.jped.2013.08.003
                24184300
                2d6fb0ed-c4b3-4280-a1f7-19d1f2d31da6

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0021-7557&lng=en
                Categories
                PEDIATRICS

                Pediatrics
                Premature rupture of fetal membranes,Premature,Social conditions,Maternal age,Female urogenital disorders,Ruptura prematura de membranas fetais,Prematuro,Condições sociais,Idade materna,Doenças urogenitais femininas

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