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      15-Deoxy-Δ 12,14-prostaglandin J 2 as a potential regulator of bone metabolism via PPARγ-dependent and independent pathways: a review

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          Abstract

          Bone metabolism is a complex physiological process that primarily involves osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, both of which are regulated by a variety of biological factors. There is increasing evidence that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays an important role in lipid metabolism and bone metabolism. Through the PPARγ-dependent pathway, 15-deoxy-Δ 12,14-prostaglandin J 2 (15d-PGJ 2) promotes the formation of marrow adipocytes and inhibits the formation of osteoblasts, resulting in bone loss and increasing the risk of fracture and osteoporosis. Recent studies have found that through the PPARγ-independent pathway, 15d-PGJ 2 plays a regulatory role in bone metastasis of breast cancer, which can inhibit osteoclastogenesis and reduce bone destruction. The purpose of our review is to summarize the recent progress in elucidating the mechanisms and effects of 15d-PGJ 2 in bone metabolism, which can serve as a novel therapeutic target for bone tumors, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and other bone diseases.

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          Most cited references 65

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          Osteoporosis: now and the future.

          Osteoporosis is a common disease characterised by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture that results in fragility fractures. With an ageing population, the medical and socioeconomic effect of osteoporosis, particularly postmenopausal osteoporosis, will increase further. A detailed knowledge of bone biology with molecular insights into the communication between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts and the orchestrating signalling network has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Novel treatment strategies have been developed that aim to inhibit excessive bone resorption and increase bone formation. The most promising novel treatments include: denosumab, a monoclonal antibody for receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a key osteoclast cytokine; odanacatib, a specific inhibitor of the osteoclast protease cathepsin K; and antibodies against the proteins sclerostin and dickkopf-1, two endogenous inhibitors of bone formation. This overview discusses these novel therapies and explains their underlying physiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects.

            Osteoporosis is a disorder in which loss of bone strength leads to fragility fractures. This review examines the fundamental pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disorder, which include: (a) failure to achieve a skeleton of optimal strength during growth and development; (b) excessive bone resorption resulting in loss of bone mass and disruption of architecture; and (c) failure to replace lost bone due to defects in bone formation. Estrogen deficiency is known to play a critical role in the development of osteoporosis, while calcium and vitamin D deficiencies and secondary hyperparathyroidism also contribute. There are multiple mechanisms underlying the regulation of bone remodeling, and these involve not only the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages but also other marrow cells, in addition to the interaction of systemic hormones, local cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors. Polymorphisms of a large number of genes have been associated with differences in bone mass and fragility. It is now possible to diagnose osteoporosis, assess fracture risk, and reduce that risk with antiresorptive or other available therapies. However, new and more effective approaches are likely to emerge from a better understanding of the regulators of bone cell function.
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              Diagnosis of osteoporosis and assessment of fracture risk.

               J Kanis (2002)
              The diagnosis of osteoporosis centres on the assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). Osteoporosis is defined as a BMD 2.5 SD or more below the average value for premenopausal women (T score < -2.5 SD). Severe osteoporosis denotes osteoporosis in the presence of one or more fragility fractures. The same absolute value for BMD used in women can be used in men. The recommended site for diagnosis is the proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Other sites and validated techniques, however, can be used for fracture prediction. Although hip fracture prediction with BMD alone is at least as good as blood pressure readings to predict stroke, the predictive value of BMD can be enhanced by use of other factors, such as biochemical indices of bone resorption and clinical risk factors. Clinical risk factors that contribute to fracture risk independently of BMD include age, previous fragility fracture, premature menopause, a family history of hip fracture, and the use of oral corticosteroids. In the absence of validated population screening strategies, a case finding strategy is recommended based on the finding of risk factors. Treatment should be considered in individuals subsequently shown to have a high fracture risk. Because of the many techniques available for fracture risk assessment, the 10-year probability of fracture is the desirable measurement to determine intervention thresholds. Many treatments can be provided cost-effectively to men and women if hip fracture probability over 10 years ranges from 2% to 10% dependent on age.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                30 May 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 1879-1888
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Graduate School of Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Spine Surgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]School of Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine , Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mingsheng TanDepartment of Spine Surgery, China-Japan Friendship Hospital , No. 2 Yinghua Dongjie, Hepingli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +861 391 102 5605Email zrtanms@ 123456163.com
                Article
                206695
                10.2147/DDDT.S206695
                6549764
                © 2019 Xiong et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 87, Pages: 10
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