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      Exercise therapy and autonomic function in heart failure patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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      Heart Failure Reviews

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Most cited references 76

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          Heart rate variability: measurement and clinical utility.

          Electrocardiographic RR intervals fluctuate cyclically, modulated by ventilation, baroreflexes, and other genetic and environmental factors that are mediated through the autonomic nervous system. Short term electrocardiographic recordings (5 to 15 minutes), made under controlled conditions, e.g., lying supine or standing or tilted upright can elucidate physiologic, pharmacologic, or pathologic changes in autonomic nervous system function. Long-term, usually 24-hour recordings, can be used to assess autonomic nervous responses during normal daily activities in health, disease, and in response to therapeutic interventions, e.g., exercise or drugs. RR interval variability is useful for assessing risk of cardiovascular death or arrhythmic events, especially when combined with other tests, e.g., left ventricular ejection fraction or ventricular arrhythmias.
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            Prospective Study of Heart Rate Variability and Mortality in Chronic Heart Failure: Results of the United Kingdom Heart Failure Evaluation and Assessment of Risk Trial (UK-Heart)

            Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have a continuing high mortality. Autonomic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiac death in CHF. UK-HEART examined the value of heart rate variability (HRV) measures as independent predictors of death in CHF. In a prospective study powered for mortality, we recruited 433 outpatients 62+/-9.6 years old with CHF (NYHA functional class I to III; mean ejection fraction, 0.41+/-0.17). Time-domain HRV indices and conventional prognostic indicators were related to death by multivariate analysis. During 482+/-161 days of follow-up, cardiothoracic ratio, SDNN, left ventricular end-systolic diameter, and serum sodium were significant predictors of all-cause mortality. The risk ratio for a 41.2-ms decrease in SDNN was 1.62 (95% CI, 1.16 to 2.44). The annual mortality rate for the study population in SDNN subgroups was 5.5% for >100 ms, 12.7% for 50 to 100 ms, and 51.4% for <50 ms. SDNN, creatinine, and serum sodium were related to progressive heart failure death. Cardiothoracic ratio, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, the presence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and serum potassium were related to sudden cardiac death. A reduction in SDNN was the most powerful predictor of the risk of death due to progressive heart failure. CHF is associated with autonomic dysfunction, which can be quantified by measuring HRV. A reduction in SDNN identifies patients at high risk of death and is a better predictor of death due to progressive heart failure than other conventional clinical measurements. High-risk subgroups identified by this measurement are candidates for additional therapy after prescription of an ACE inhibitor.
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              Advances in heart rate variability signal analysis: joint position statement by the e-Cardiology ESC Working Group and the European Heart Rhythm Association co-endorsed by the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society.

              Following the publication of the Task Force document on heart rate variability (HRV) in 1996, a number of articles have been published to describe new HRV methodologies and their application in different physiological and clinical studies. This document presents a critical review of the new methods. A particular attention has been paid to methodologies that have not been reported in the 1996 standardization document but have been more recently tested in sufficiently sized populations. The following methods were considered: Long-range correlation and fractal analysis; Short-term complexity; Entropy and regularity; and Nonlinear dynamical systems and chaotic behaviour. For each of these methods, technical aspects, clinical achievements, and suggestions for clinical application were reviewed. While the novel approaches have contributed in the technical understanding of the signal character of HRV, their success in developing new clinical tools, such as those for the identification of high-risk patients, has been rather limited. Available results obtained in selected populations of patients by specialized laboratories are nevertheless of interest but new prospective studies are needed. The investigation of new parameters, descriptive of the complex regulation mechanisms of heart rate, has to be encouraged because not all information in the HRV signal is captured by traditional methods. The new technologies thus could provide after proper validation, additional physiological, and clinical meaning. Multidisciplinary dialogue and specialized courses in the combination of clinical cardiology and complex signal processing methods seem warranted for further advances in studies of cardiac oscillations and in the understanding normal and abnormal cardiac control processes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Heart Failure Reviews
                Heart Fail Rev
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1382-4147
                1573-7322
                January 2018
                November 29 2017
                January 2018
                : 23
                : 1
                : 91-108
                Article
                10.1007/s10741-017-9662-z
                © 2018

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