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      A wearable artificial kidney for patients with end-stage renal disease.

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          Abstract

          Stationary hemodialysis machines hinder mobility and limit activities of daily life during dialysis treatments. New hemodialysis technologies are needed to improve patient autonomy and enhance quality of life.

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          Most cited references 39

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          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risks in chronic hemodialysis patients.

          Cardiovascular diseases are the most common causes of death among chronic hemodialysis patients, yet the risk factors for these events have not been well established. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the relationship between several traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and the presence or history of cardiovascular events in 936 hemodialysis patients enrolled in the baseline phase of the Hemodialysis Study sponsored by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The adjusted odds ratios for each of the selected risk factors were estimated using a multivariable logistic regression model, controlling for the remaining risk factors, clinical center, and years on dialysis. Forty percent of the patients had coronary heart disease. Nineteen percent had cerebrovascular disease, and 23% had peripheral vascular disease. As expected, diabetes and smoking were strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases. Increasing age was also an important contributor, especially in the group less than 55 years and in nondiabetic patients. Black race was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases than non-blacks. Interestingly, neither serum total cholesterol nor predialysis systolic blood pressure was associated with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral vascular disease. Further estimation of the coronary risks in our cohort using the Framingham coronary point score suggests that traditional risk factors are inadequate predictors of coronary heart disease in hemodialysis patients. Some of the traditional coronary risk factors in the general population appear to be also applicable to the hemodialysis population, while other factors did not correlate with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in this cross-sectional study. Nontraditional risk factors, including the uremic milieu and perhaps the hemodialysis procedure itself, are likely to be contributory. Further studies are necessary to define the cardiovascular risk factors in order to devise preventive and interventional strategies for the chronic hemodialysis population.
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            Effect of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis vs conventional hemodialysis on left ventricular mass and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial.

            Morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis patients remain excessive. Alterations in the delivery of dialysis may lead to improved patient outcomes. To compare the effects of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis vs conventional hemodialysis on change in left ventricular mass and health-related quality of life over 6 months. A 2-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 Canadian university centers between August 2004 and December 2006. A total of 52 patients undergoing hemodialysis were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive nocturnal hemodialysis 6 times weekly or conventional hemodialysis 3 times weekly. The primary outcome was change in left ventricular mass, as measured by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. The secondary outcomes were patient-reported quality of life, blood pressure, mineral metabolism, and use of medications. Frequent nocturnal hemodialysis significantly improved the primary outcome (mean left ventricular mass difference between groups, 15.3 g, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 29.6 g; P = .04). Frequent nocturnal hemodialysis did not significantly improve quality of life (difference of change in EuroQol 5-D index from baseline, 0.05; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.17; P = .43). However, frequent nocturnal hemodialysis was associated with clinically and statistically significant improvements in selected kidney-specific domains of quality of life (P = .01 for effects of kidney disease and P = .02 for burden of kidney disease). Frequent nocturnal hemodialysis was also associated with improvements in systolic blood pressure (P = .01 after adjustment) and mineral metabolism, including a reduction in or discontinuation of antihypertensive medications (16/26 patients in the nocturnal hemodialysis group vs 3/25 patients in the conventional hemodialysis group; P < .001) and oral phosphate binders (19/26 patients in the nocturnal hemodialysis group vs 3/25 patients in the conventional dialysis group; P < .001). No benefit in anemia management was seen with nocturnal hemodialysis. This preliminary study revealed that, compared with conventional hemodialysis (3 times weekly), frequent nocturnal hemodialysis improved left ventricular mass, reduced the need for blood pressure medications, improved some measures of mineral metabolism, and improved selected measures of quality of life. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN25858715.
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              Longer treatment time and slower ultrafiltration in hemodialysis: associations with reduced mortality in the DOPPS.

              Longer treatment time (TT) and slower ultrafiltration rate (UFR) are considered advantageous for hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 22,000 HD patients from seven countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Logistic regression was used to study predictors of TT > 240 min and UFR > 10 ml/h/kg bodyweight. Cox regression was used for survival analyses. Statistical adjustments were made for patient demographics, comorbidities, dose of dialysis (Kt/V), and body size. Europe and Japan had significantly longer (P 240 min was independently associated with significantly lower relative risk (RR) of mortality (RR = 0.81; P = 0.0005). Every 30 min longer on HD was associated with a 7% lower RR of mortality (RR = 0.93; P 10 ml/h/kg was associated with higher odds of intradialytic hypotension (odds ratio = 1.30; P = 0.045) and a higher risk of mortality (RR = 1.09; P = 0.02). Longer TT and higher Kt/V were independently as well as synergistically associated with lower mortality. Rapid UFR during HD was also associated with higher mortality risk. These results warrant a randomized clinical trial of longer dialysis sessions in thrice-weekly HD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JCI Insight
                JCI insight
                American Society for Clinical Investigation
                2379-3708
                Jun 02 2016
                : 1
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA; David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.
                [2 ] Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
                [3 ] Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Division of Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Hospital and University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
                [4 ] Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
                [5 ] Blood Purification Technologies Inc., Beverly Hills, California, USA.
                [6 ] Kidney Research Institute, Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Department of Health Services, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
                Article
                NIHMS793481
                10.1172/jci.insight.86397
                4936831
                27398407

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