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      Inappropriateness of medication prescriptions about chronic kidney disease patients without dialysis therapy in a Chinese tertiary teaching hospital

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          With the increasing incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD), inappropriate use of medicine in CKD patients is an important issue, as it may cause adverse effects in patients and progression to chronic renal failure.


          The aim of this study is to assess the frequency of inappropriate medicine use among CKD patients.


          A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 1 to December 1, 2014 in a Chinese teaching tertiary hospital. All medication prescriptions for CKD patients with serum creatinine level above normal value were enrolled. The prescriptions, including unreasonable dosage, contraindicated, and cautiously used medicines in CKD patients, were evaluated and the related medications were also analyzed and classified.


          Two hundred and two patients were included, and a total of 1,733 lines of medication prescriptions were evaluated. The prevalence of inappropriate medication prescriptions in CKD patients was 15.18%, of which, unreasonable dosage (n=56), contraindicated (n=46), and cautiously used medicines (n=161) accounted for 3.23%, 2.65%, and 9.29%, respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient implied that there was a significant correlation between the severity of renal insufficiency and frequency of inappropriate medication prescriptions ( P=0.02, r=0.056). Among the inappropriate medication prescriptions, nutraceutical and electrolytes (n=65, 24.71%), cardiovascular drugs (n=61, 23.19%), and antimicrobial drugs (n=55, 20.91%) represented the top three medicine categories in CKD patients.


          The study confirmed that inappropriate medication prescriptions were prevalent in CKD patients. Improving the quality of medication prescriptions in CKD patients is necessary.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Low rates of testing and diagnostic codes usage in a commercial clinical laboratory: evidence for lack of physician awareness of chronic kidney disease.

          Improving outcomes for chronic kidney disease (CKD) requires early identification and recognition by physicians. There are few data on rates of testing or use of diagnostic codes for CKD. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of patients who were older than 40 yr and had one or more laboratory tests between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2003, at a Laboratory Corporation of America regional laboratory. Objectives were to determine the frequency of testing for serum creatinine; prevalence of CKD, defined as estimated GFR 60 yr were more likely to be tested for serum creatinine with odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval) of 2.09 (2.05 to 2.14), 1.22 (1.19 to 1.25), and 1.24 (1.22 to 1.27) respectively. Among patients tested, 30% had CKD. Sensitivity and specificity of kidney disease diagnostic codes compared with CKD defined by estimated GFR 60 years, and CVD, rates of testing and sensitivity of diagnostic codes were 53 and 14%, respectively. Low rates of testing for serum creatinine and insensitivity of diagnostic codes for CKD, even in high-risk patients, suggests inadequate physician awareness of CKD and limited utility of administrative databases for identification of patients with CKD.
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            Medication-related problems in ambulatory hemodialysis patients: a pooled analysis.

            Medication-related problems are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. These patients often require 12 medications to treat 5 to 6 comorbid conditions. Medication-related problem research reports cannot be generalized to the entire HD population because data are obtained from single centers and limited numbers of patients. We conducted a pooled analysis to gain additional insight into the frequency, type, and severity of medication-related problems and extrapolated the data to the entire US HD population. Articles were identified through a MEDLINE search (1962 to March 2004). Seven studies were included in the analysis. Medication-related problems were categorized into the following 9 categories: indication without drug therapy, drug without indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, overdosage, adverse drug reaction, drug interaction, failure to receive drug, and inappropriate laboratory monitoring. A medication-related problem appearance rate was determined. We identified 1,593 medication-related problems in 395 patients (51.2% men; age, 52.4 +/- 8.2 years; 42.7% with diabetes). The most common medication-related problems found were inappropriate laboratory monitoring (23.5%) and indication without drug therapy (16.9%). Dosing errors accounted for 20.4% of medication-related problems (subtherapeutic dosage, 11.2%; overdosage, 9.2%). The medication-related problem appearance rate was 5.75e(-0.37x), where x equals number of months of follow-up (P = 0.02). HD patients experience ongoing medication-related problems. Reduction in medication-related problems in dialysis patients may improve quality of life and result in decreased morbidity and mortality. Pharmacists are uniquely trained to detect and manage medication-related problems. Pharmacists should be an integral member of the dialysis health care team.
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              Detection of chronic kidney disease with laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate and an educational program.

              Serum creatinine concentration is an inadequate screening test for chronic kidney disease, especially in elderly patients. We hypothesized that laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) accompanied with an educational intervention would improve recognition of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a before-and-after study at an outpatient family medicine practice. Patients 65 years or older for whom a Cockcroft-Gault GFR could be calculated from their medical record were included. The intervention consisted of automatic reporting of estimated GFR by the hospital laboratory along with an educational intervention directed toward the primary care physicians. The primary outcome was the recognition of CKD (defined as a Cockroft-Gault GFR <60 mL/min [<1.0 mL/s]) by the primary care physician. Factors associated with the recognition of CKD were also determined. The study population comprised 324 patients. Prior to the study intervention, 22.4% of patients with CKD were recognized, which increased to 85.1% after the intervention. Before the intervention, recognition was more likely in male subjects (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-9.8) and patients with diabetes (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.6). These associations were no longer statistically significant after the intervention. Laboratory reporting of estimated GFR coupled with an educational program markedly improves the recognition of CKD in the primary care setting.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                12 October 2016
                : 12
                : 1517-1524
                Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sai-Ping Jiang, Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310003, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 571 8723 3411, Fax +86 571 8723 3411, Email j5145@ 123456126.com
                © 2016 Yang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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