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      Serum Levels of Joining Chain-Containing IgA1 Are Not Elevated in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

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          Abstract

          Background

          It has been suggested that mesangial IgA deposits are dimeric or polymeric in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, evidence concerning the molecular form of serum IgA in IgAN is controversial. And there is no direct evidence that the serum levels of joining chain- (J chain-) containing IgA (J-IgA) are elevated in IgAN. In this study, we aimed to measure serum J-IgA and glomerular J chain deposition with anti-J chain monoclonal antibody in IgAN.

          Methods

          BALB/c mice were immunized with human J chain-GST recombinant peptide to obtain anti-J chain monoclonal antibody. The levels of serum total IgA and J-IgA were measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 115 patients with IgAN and 117 healthy volunteers. J chain deposition in kidney specimens was analyzed by immunohistochemistry staining.

          Results

          Serum levels of total IgA1 were elevated in IgAN patients compared to healthy subjects. However, serum levels of IgA, J-IgA, and J chain-containing IgA1 (J-IgA1), the J-IgA to total IgA ratio, and the J-IgA1 to total IgA1 ratio were not significantly different between IgAN patients and healthy subjects. Western blot analysis and gel filtration analysis using purified IgA1 also showed that the proportion of J chain-containing polymeric IgA1 was lower in IgAN patients compared to healthy subjects. No correlation was found between serum J-IgA or J-IgA1 and clinical features in IgAN. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that glomerular J chain was positive in 12 IgAN patients (57.1%). The values of the J-IgA to IgA ratio and J-IgA1 to IgA ratio were significantly higher in IgAN patients with glomerular J chain deposition than those without. However, the serum levels of J-IgA and J-IgA1 and the J-IgA1 to IgA1 ratio were not significantly higher in two subgroups.

          Conclusions

          Although serum levels of total IgA1 were elevated in IgAN, the serum levels of J-IgA1 were not elevated. And serum J-IgA, serum J-IgA1, and J chain deposition were not correlated with disease severity in IgAN.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The commonest glomerulonephritis in the world: IgA nephropathy.

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            Natural history of idiopathic IgA nephropathy: role of clinical and histological prognostic factors.

             G D'Amico (2000)
            Idiopathic immunoglobulin A nephropathy is characterized by an extreme variability in clinical course and sometimes by the unpredictability of the ultimate outcome. Among the numerous studies published in the last 15 years that have calculated the actuarial renal survival and tried to individuate the prognostic role of the clinical and histological features present at the onset of the disease or the time of biopsy, we chose to analyze critically the results of the most valid (30 studies). Actuarial renal survival at 10 years in adults was between 80% and 85% in most of the European and Asian studies, but it was less in studies from the United States and exceeded 90% in the few studies of children. Concordance existed in this selected literature that impairment of renal function, severe proteinuria, and arterial hypertension are the strongest and more reliable clinical predictors of an unfavorable outcome. However, analysis of the prognostic value of morphological lesions was more difficult because they have been characterized in some studies using an overall score or histological classes of progressively more severe involvement and, in others, using a semiquantitative grading of individual glomerular, tubular, interstitial, and vascular changes. In adult patients, a high score of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions, corresponding to classes IV and V of the Lee or Haas classifications, predicted a more rapid progression. When single lesions were analyzed separately, glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis appeared to be the strongest, most reliable predictors of unfavorable prognosis. More controversial was the role of crescents and capsular adhesions. None of the immunohistological features was found to be a risk factor for progression in the more accurate statistical analyses. The same histological features predicted outcome in children, although the severity of lesions at the time of biopsy was usually less than that in adults. However, in the single patient, even the evaluation of these prognostic markers sometimes fails to correctly predict outcome, probably because of the heterogeneity of the disease and the discontinuous activity of some injuring mechanisms during its course.
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              Circulating immune complexes in IgA nephropathy consist of IgA1 with galactose-deficient hinge region and antiglycan antibodies.

              Circulating immune complexes (CICs) isolated from sera of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) consist of undergalactosylated, mostly polymeric, and J chain-containing IgA1 and IgG antibodies specific for N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residues in O-linked glycans of the hinge region of IgA1 heavy chains. Antibodies with such specificity occur in sera of IgAN patients, and in smaller quantities in patients with non-IgA proliferative glomerulonephritis and in healthy controls; they are present mainly in the IgG (predominantly IgG2 subclass), and less frequently in the IgA1 isotype. Their specificity for GalNAc was determined by reactivity with IgA1 myeloma proteins with enzymatically removed N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuNAc) and galactose (Gal); removal of the O-linked glycans of IgA1 resulted in significantly decreased reactivity. Furthermore, IgA2 proteins that lack the hinge region with O-linked glycans but are otherwise structurally similar to IgA1 did not react with IgG or IgA1 antibodies. The re-formation of isolated and acid-dissociated CICs was inhibited more effectively by IgA1 lacking NeuNAc and Gal than by intact IgA1. Immobilized GalNAc and asialo-ovine submaxillary mucin (rich in O-linked glycans) were also effective inhibitors. Our results suggest that the deficiency of Gal in the hinge region of IgA1 molecules results in the generation of antigenic determinants containing GalNAc residues that are recognized by naturally occurring IgG and IgA1 antibodies.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Dis Markers
                Dis. Markers
                DM
                Disease Markers
                Hindawi
                0278-0240
                1875-8630
                2019
                2 July 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China
                2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China
                3Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Alexandra Scholze

                Article
                10.1155/2019/9802839
                6636472
                Copyright © 2019 Guanhong Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Beijing Municipal Natural Science Foundation
                Award ID: 7192165
                Categories
                Research Article

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