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      SGLT2 inhibitors and mechanisms of cardiovascular benefit: a state-of-the-art review

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      Diabetologia

      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Most cited references 65

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          Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular Outcomes, and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes.

          The effects of empagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, in addition to standard care, on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk are not known.
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            Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes

            Background Canagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that reduces glycemia as well as blood pressure, body weight, and albuminuria in people with diabetes. We report the effects of treatment with canagliflozin on cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes. Methods The CANVAS Program integrated data from two trials involving a total of 10,142 participants with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Participants in each trial were randomly assigned to receive canagliflozin or placebo and were followed for a mean of 188.2 weeks. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Results The mean age of the participants was 63.3 years, 35.8% were women, the mean duration of diabetes was 13.5 years, and 65.6% had a history of cardiovascular disease. The rate of the primary outcome was lower with canagliflozin than with placebo (occurring in 26.9 vs. 31.5 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.02 for superiority). Although on the basis of the prespecified hypothesis testing sequence the renal outcomes are not viewed as statistically significant, the results showed a possible benefit of canagliflozin with respect to the progression of albuminuria (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.79) and the composite outcome of a sustained 40% reduction in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the need for renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal causes (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.77). Adverse reactions were consistent with the previously reported risks associated with canagliflozin except for an increased risk of amputation (6.3 vs. 3.4 participants per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.41 to 2.75); amputations were primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. Conclusions In two trials involving patients with type 2 diabetes and an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, patients treated with canagliflozin had a lower risk of cardiovascular events than those who received placebo but a greater risk of amputation, primarily at the level of the toe or metatarsal. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CANVAS and CANVAS-R ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01032629 and NCT01989754 , respectively.).
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              Myocardial fatty acid metabolism in health and disease.

              There is a constant high demand for energy to sustain the continuous contractile activity of the heart, which is met primarily by the beta-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. The control of fatty acid beta-oxidation is complex and is aimed at ensuring that the supply and oxidation of the fatty acids is sufficient to meet the energy demands of the heart. The metabolism of fatty acids via beta-oxidation is not regulated in isolation; rather, it occurs in response to alterations in contractile work, the presence of competing substrates (i.e., glucose, lactate, ketones, amino acids), changes in hormonal milieu, and limitations in oxygen supply. Alterations in fatty acid metabolism can contribute to cardiac pathology. For instance, the excessive uptake and beta-oxidation of fatty acids in obesity and diabetes can compromise cardiac function. Furthermore, alterations in fatty acid beta-oxidation both during and after ischemia and in the failing heart can also contribute to cardiac pathology. This paper reviews the regulation of myocardial fatty acid beta-oxidation and how alterations in fatty acid beta-oxidation can contribute to heart disease. The implications of inhibiting fatty acid beta-oxidation as a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of various forms of heart disease are also discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Diabetologia
                Diabetologia
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                0012-186X
                1432-0428
                October 2018
                August 22 2018
                October 2018
                : 61
                : 10
                : 2108-2117
                Article
                10.1007/s00125-018-4670-7
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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