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      The intestinal microbiota fuelling metabolic inflammation

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          Abstract

          Low-grade inflammation is the hallmark of metabolic disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Emerging evidence indicates that these disorders are characterized by alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition and its metabolites, which translocate from the gut across a disrupted intestinal barrier to affect various metabolic organs, such as the liver and adipose tissue, thereby contributing to metabolic inflammation. Here, we discuss some of the recently identified mechanisms that showcase the role of the intestinal microbiota and barrier dysfunction in metabolic inflammation. We propose a concept by which the gut microbiota fuels metabolic inflammation and dysregulation.

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          Most cited references 118

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          Pathophysiology and treatment of type 2 diabetes: perspectives on the past, present, and future.

          Glucose metabolism is normally regulated by a feedback loop including islet β cells and insulin-sensitive tissues, in which tissue sensitivity to insulin affects magnitude of β-cell response. If insulin resistance is present, β cells maintain normal glucose tolerance by increasing insulin output. Only when β cells cannot release sufficient insulin in the presence of insulin resistance do glucose concentrations rise. Although β-cell dysfunction has a clear genetic component, environmental changes play an essential part. Modern research approaches have helped to establish the important role that hexoses, aminoacids, and fatty acids have in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, and the potential role of changes in the microbiome. Several new approaches for treatment have been developed, but more effective therapies to slow progressive loss of β-cell function are needed. Recent findings from clinical trials provide important information about methods to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes and some of the adverse effects of these interventions. However, additional long-term studies of drugs and bariatric surgery are needed to identify new ways to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes and thereby reduce the harmful effects of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Adapting to obesity with adipose tissue inflammation

            Adipose tissue inflammation is an adaptive response to overnutrition in the early stages of obesity, but later becomes maladaptive. Here, Reilly and Saltiel review the cellular and molecular mechanisms of obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue and discuss potential therapeutic approaches.
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              Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus.

               Paul Nathan (1993)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Immunology
                Nat Rev Immunol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1474-1733
                1474-1741
                August 6 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41577-019-0198-4
                31388093
                © 2019

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