The location of the pacemaker lead is based on the shape of the lead on fluoroscopy only, typically in the left and right anterior oblique positions. However, these fluoroscopy criteria are insufficient and many leads apparently considered to be in septum are in fact anchored in anterior wall. Periprocedural ECG could determine the correct lead location. The aim of the current analysis is to characterize ECG criteria associated with a correct position of the right ventricular (RV) lead in the mid-septum. Patients with indications for a pacemaker had the RV lead implanted in the apex (Group A) or mid-septum using the standard fluoroscopic criteria. The exact position of the RV lead was verified using computed tomography. Based on the findings, the mid-septal group was divided into two subgroups: (i) true septum, i.e. lead was found in the mid-septum, and (ii) false septum, i.e. lead was in the adjacent areas (anterior wall, anteroseptal groove). Paced ECGs were acquired from all patients and multiple criteria were analysed. Paced ECGs from 106 patients were analysed (27 in A, 36 in true septum, and 43 in false septum group). Group A had a significantly wider QRS, more left-deviated axis and later transition zone compared with the true septum and false septum groups. There were no differences in presence of q in lead I, or notching in inferior or lateral leads between the three groups. QRS patterns of true septum and false septum groups were similar with only one exception of the transition zone. In the multivariate model, the only ECG parameters associated with correct lead placement in the septum was an earlier transition zone (odds ratio (OR) 2.53, P = 0.001). ECGs can be easily used to differentiate apical pacing from septal or septum-close pacing. The only ECG characteristic that could help to identify true septum lead position was the transition zone in the precordial leads.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02412176.