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      Can QRS morphology be used to differentiate between true septal vs. apparently septal lead placement? An analysis of ECG of real mid-septal, apparent mid-septal, and apical pacing

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          Abstract

          The location of the pacemaker lead is based on the shape of the lead on fluoroscopy only, typically in the left and right anterior oblique positions. However, these fluoroscopy criteria are insufficient and many leads apparently considered to be in septum are in fact anchored in anterior wall. Periprocedural ECG could determine the correct lead location. The aim of the current analysis is to characterize ECG criteria associated with a correct position of the right ventricular (RV) lead in the mid-septum. Patients with indications for a pacemaker had the RV lead implanted in the apex (Group A) or mid-septum using the standard fluoroscopic criteria. The exact position of the RV lead was verified using computed tomography. Based on the findings, the mid-septal group was divided into two subgroups: (i) true septum, i.e. lead was found in the mid-septum, and (ii) false septum, i.e. lead was in the adjacent areas (anterior wall, anteroseptal groove). Paced ECGs were acquired from all patients and multiple criteria were analysed. Paced ECGs from 106 patients were analysed (27 in A, 36 in true septum, and 43 in false septum group). Group A had a significantly wider QRS, more left-deviated axis and later transition zone compared with the true septum and false septum groups. There were no differences in presence of q in lead I, or notching in inferior or lateral leads between the three groups. QRS patterns of true septum and false septum groups were similar with only one exception of the transition zone. In the multivariate model, the only ECG parameters associated with correct lead placement in the septum was an earlier transition zone (odds ratio (OR) 2.53, P = 0.001). ECGs can be easily used to differentiate apical pacing from septal or septum-close pacing. The only ECG characteristic that could help to identify true septum lead position was the transition zone in the precordial leads.

          ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02412176.

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          Most cited references 20

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          New-onset heart failure after permanent right ventricular apical pacing in patients with acquired high-grade atrioventricular block and normal left ventricular function.

          Emerging data have suggested that right ventricular (RV) apical pacing results in progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and contributes to the development of heart failure (HF). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical predictors for the development of new-onset HF after long-term RV apical pacing in patients with acquired atrioventricular (AV) block who require permanent pacing. We studied the clinical outcomes after long-term RV apical pacing for acquired AV block in 304 patients without a prior history of HF. All patients had >90% ventricular pacing as determined by device diagnostic data. After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 79 patients (26.0%) developed new-onset HF after RV apical pacing. Univariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that older age at the time of pacemaker implantation (P < 0.001), the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) (P < 0.001) or atrial fibrillation (P = 0.03), VVI pacemaker (P < 0.001), wider paced QRS duration (P < 0.001), and new-onset myocardial infarction (P < 0.001) were predictors for HF. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age at implantation (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.06, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.04-1.09, P < 0.001), CAD (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.12-3.50, P < 0.05), and a wider paced QRS duration (HR 1.27 for each 10 ms increment, 95% CI 1.11-1.45, P = 0.001) were independent predictors of HF. Furthermore, cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased in those with HF (36.7% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001). After a median follow-up of 7.8 years, permanent RV apical pacing was associated with HF in 26% of patients. Elderly age at the time of implant, a wider paced QRS duration and the presence of CAD independently predicted new-onset HF. More importantly, HF after RV apical pacing was associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality.
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            Long-term effect of right ventricular pacing on myocardial perfusion and function.

            The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term ventricular pacing on myocardial perfusion and function in patients receiving such pacing. The long-term effect of ventricular pacing on myocardial perfusion and function in humans is unclear, although animal studies have suggested that it may be adverse. Forty-three patients with complete heart block and dual-chamber rate-adaptive (DDDR) pacing were studied. All underwent thallium-201 (Tl-201) exercise myocardial scintigraphy to assess myocardial perfusion and radionuclide ventriculography to determine left ventricular function and regional wall motion. Coronary angiography was also performed in patients with abnormal findings on Tl-201 study. There was no significant difference in mean age, gender, percent ventricular pacing, pacing threshold, ventricular pacing output and metabolic equivalents on exercise testing between patients with or without perfusion defects on exercise Tl-201 scintigraphy. However, the duration of pacing tended to be longer in patients with than in those without perfusion defects (43.9 +/- 49.7 vs. 20.1 +/- 9.8 months, p = 0.05). Tl-201 perfusion defects were noted in 28 (65%) of 43 of patients (inferior 78% [n = 22], apical 67% [n = 17], septal 21% [n = 6], anterior 7% [n = 2], lateral 3% [n = 1)]. Of 16 of 28 patients with abnormal Tl-201 findings who underwent coronary angiography, only 3 (19%) had significant coronary artery disease. Patients with an abnormal perfusion defect had a significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (48.5 +/- 9.9% vs. 59.6 +/- 8.9%, p < 0.001) and a higher percent of wall motion abnormalities (57% vs. 20%, p = 0.026), mainly over apical regions. Long-term right ventricular apical pacing resulted in a high incidence of myocardial perfusion defects that increased with the duration of pacing. These myocardial perfusion abnormalities were associated with apical wall motion abnormalities and impaired global left ventricular function.
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              Beneficial effects of right ventricular non-apical vs. apical pacing: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

              Previous studies have suggested that right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing may have deleterious effects on left ventricular function. Whether right ventricular non-apical (RVNA) pacing offers a better alternative to RVA pacing is unclear. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) in order to compare the mid- and long-term effects of RVA and RVNA pacing.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur Heart J Suppl
                Eur Heart J Suppl
                ehjsupp
                European Heart Journal Supplements : Journal of the European Society of Cardiology
                Oxford University Press
                1520-765X
                1554-2815
                July 2020
                15 July 2020
                15 July 2020
                : 22
                : Suppl F , Cardiovascular Research at the Charles University
                : F14-F22
                Affiliations
                Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady , Srobarova 50, Prague 100 34, Czech Republic
                Author notes
                Corresponding author. Tel: +420 721544447, Fax: +420 267162621, Email: pavel.osmancik@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                suaa094
                10.1093/eurheartj/suaa094
                7361669
                Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. © The Author(s) 2020.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Cardiovascular Research Program of the Charles University;
                Categories
                Articles

                apical pacing, septal pacing, pacemaker implantation, ecg

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