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      Liquefaction Incidents of Mineral Cargoes on Board Bulk Carriers

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      Advances in Materials Science and Engineering

      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          Liquefaction is a frequently occurring problem taking place when transporting wet granular solid bulk cargoes on board bulk carriers. Liquefaction of a solid bulk cargo can occur when excessive dynamic loading, induced by rough seas and vessel vibrations, is transmitted to the cargo. From 1988 to 2015, there have been 24 suspected liquefaction incidents reported, which resulted in 164 casualties and the loss of 18 vessels. The objective of this study is to investigate the collective causes of liquefaction of solid bulk cargoes on board bulk carriers in order to make recommendations to prevent future incidents from occurring. This was achieved by analysing the seven available investigative reports relating to the incidents, focusing on the key findings and exploring the effect of excess moisture within the cargo. This study has placed significant emphasis on the importance of preventing ingress of water into the cargo during transportation, loading, and storage. Recommendations have been given, based on the key findings from the reports, to reduce the potential for liquefaction incidents to occur.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Liquefaction and flow failure during earthquakes

           K Ishihara (1993)
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            • Abstract: not found
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            The liquefaction of sands, a collapse surface approach

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              • Abstract: not found
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              Undrained Monotonic and Cyclic Triaxial Strength of Sand

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
                Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
                Hindawi Limited
                1687-8434
                1687-8442
                2016
                2016
                : 2016
                :
                : 1-20
                Article
                10.1155/2016/5219474
                © 2016

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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