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      Non-targeted metabolite profiling of citrus juices as a tool for variety discrimination and metabolite flow analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Genetic diversity of citrus includes intrageneric hybrids, cultivars arising from cross-pollination and/or somatic mutations with particular biochemical compounds such as sugar, acids and secondary metabolite composition.

          Results

          Secondary metabolite profiles of juices from 12 commercial varieties grouped into blonde and navel types, mandarins, lemons and grapefruits were analyzed by LC/ESI-QTOF-MS. HCA on metabolite profiling data revealed the existence of natural groups demarcating fruit types and varieties associated to specific composition patterns. The unbiased classification provided by HCA was used for PLS-DA to find the potential variables (mass chromatographic features) responsible for the classification. Abscisic acid and derivatives, several flavonoids and limonoids were identified by analysis of mass spectra. To facilitate interpretation, metabolites were represented as flow charts depicting biosynthetic pathways. Mandarins ‘Fortune’ and ‘Hernandina’ along with oranges showed higher ABA contents and ABA degradation products were present as glycosylated forms in oranges and certain mandarins. All orange and grapefruit varieties showed high limonin contents and its glycosylated form, that was only absent in lemons. The rest of identified limonoids were highly abundant in oranges. Particularly, Sucrenya cultivar showed a specific accumulation of obacunone and limonoate A-ring lactone. Polymethoxylated flavanones (tangeritin and isomers) were absolutely absent from lemons and grapefruits whereas kaempferol deoxyhexose hexose isomer #2, naringin and neohesperidin were only present in these cultivars.

          Conclusions

          Analysis of relative metabolite build-up in closely-related genotypes allowed the efficient demarcation of cultivars and suggested the existence of genotype-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential metabolite accumulation.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0430-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

          The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles.
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            Metabolomics as a Tool to Investigate Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

            Metabolites reflect the integration of gene expression, protein interaction and other different regulatory processes and are therefore closer to the phenotype than mRNA transcripts or proteins alone. Amongst all –omics technologies, metabolomics is the most transversal and can be applied to different organisms with little or no modifications. It has been successfully applied to the study of molecular phenotypes of plants in response to abiotic stress in order to find particular patterns associated to stress tolerance. These studies have highlighted the essential involvement of primary metabolites: sugars, amino acids and Krebs cycle intermediates as direct markers of photosynthetic dysfunction as well as effectors of osmotic readjustment. On the contrary, secondary metabolites are more specific of genera and species and respond to particular stress conditions as antioxidants, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) scavengers, coenzymes, UV and excess radiation screen and also as regulatory molecules. In addition, the induction of secondary metabolites by several abiotic stress conditions could also be an effective mechanism of cross-protection against biotic threats, providing a link between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Moreover, the presence/absence and relative accumulation of certain metabolites along with gene expression data provides accurate markers (mQTL or MWAS) for tolerant crop selection in breeding programs.
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              Flavonoid composition of Citrus juices.

              In the early nineties the presence of flavonoids in Citrus juices began to attract the attention of a number of researchers, as a result of their biological and physiological importance. This short review will explore two different aspects. The first part will focus on analytical techniques for the characterization of juices from different Citrus fruits regarding their flavonoid content (even if present in only trace amounts), concentrating on the most widely used methods (LC-MS and LC-MS-MS). The second part analyzes data reported in the literature regarding the composition of Citrus juices. The main components that have been detected so far are flavanone-O-glycosides and flavone-O- or -C-glycosides. The presence of such derivatives in various hand-squeezed and industrial juices is discussed, with special emphasis on their correlation to different species.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                vicente.arbona@camn.uji.es
                iglesias_dom@gva.es
                aurelio.gomez@camn.uji.es
                Journal
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biol
                BMC Plant Biology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2229
                5 February 2015
                5 February 2015
                2015
                : 15
                Affiliations
                [ ]Laboratori d’Ecofisiologia i Biotecnologia, Departament de Ciències Agràries i del Medi Natural, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castelló de la Plana, Spain
                [ ]Institut Valencià d’Investigacions Agràries (IVIA), Moncada, Spain
                Article
                430
                10.1186/s12870-015-0430-8
                4329192
                25652567
                © Arbona et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

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