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      Effect of Repeated Oral Administrations of the Oral Adsorbent AST-120 on Serum Creatinine and Other Markers of Renal Function

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          Background: AST-120 is an orally administered adsorbent used in Japan for prolonging time to initiation of hemodialysis and improving uremic symptoms in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). As AST-120 is suspected to reduce the progression of CKD by adsorbing renal toxins in the gastrointestinal tract, the objective of the current study was to determine whether binding of AST-120 to creatinine in the intestines could acutely alter creatinine balance, thereby limiting the utility of serum creatinine (sCr) as a measure of progression of renal function. Such information may be critical for the design of future studies to assess the efficacy of AST-120 in CKD patients. Methods: Patients with CKD (n = 20) received oral doses of AST-120(3 g t.i.d.) and placebo in a two-way crossover study. Blood and urine were collected for determination of sCr, 24-hour urinary creatinine (UcrV), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urea nitrogen clearance (URCL). Differences between treatments were assessed using an ANCOVA model. Results: Following AST-120 and placebo treatments, mean sCr (1.73 and 1.79 mg/dl, respectively) and UcrV (1,264.73 and 1,286.05 mg) values were not significantly different. No significant differences were observed for Ccr and URCL. Conclusion: These results indicate that AST-120 has no acute impact on creatinine balance in patients with CKD. Consequently, sCr and other markers of renal function are acceptable measures for assessing changes in renal function following AST-120 treatment.

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          Protective effect of an oral adsorbent on renal function in chronic renal failure: determinants of its efficacy in diabetic nephropathy.

          Large-scale clinical trials have shown that the oral adsorbent AST-120 improves renal function and delays the initiation of dialysis in chronic renal failure (CRF) secondary to chronic glomerulonephritis. If renal failure progresses via common mechanisms, then the same effects can be expected in diabetic nephropathy. However, no study on diabetic nephropathy has been reported. Thus, we enrolled patients with statistically significant progression of CRF secondary to diabetic nephropathy, and analyzed the changes in renal function after AST-120 therapy, and the clinical factors associated with response to therapy. We enrolled 276 patients with diabetic nephropathy, whose serum creatinine (Scr) had increased from 3.4 to 4.5 mg/dL during the 4.5 +/- 3.7 months prior to the study. These patients took AST-120 at a dose of 5.0 +/- 1.4 g/day for 6 months. The clinical data were analyzed by dividing the patients into three groups based on the changes in Scr after AST-120 therapy, with responders showing a decrease (N = 82), partial responders showing /=1.5-fold increase (N = 50). AST-120 significantly lowered the slope of 1/Scr-time line, suggesting that AST-120 suppressed the progression of renal impairment. No responders required dialysis, whereas 24.3% of the partial responders and 36.0% of the non-responders started dialysis therapy. In responders, the 1/Scr-time slope showed a negative-to-positive shift and serum urea nitrogen decreased significantly, whereas the improvement was moderate in partial responders and minimal in non-responders. Among responders, AST-120 therapy significantly improved renal function despite the presence of hypoproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, anemia or hypertension in many patients. The beneficial effect of AST-120 was significantly more marked in patients with blood pressure controlled within the normal ranges and hematocrit maintained at 30% or above. AST-120 reversed renal dysfunction or delayed the initiation of dialysis therapy in patients with progressive aggravation of CRF secondary to diabetic nephropathy, independent of hypoproteinemia, hyperlipidemia, anemia and hypertension. Active use of AST-120 may be recommended in patients with good control of blood pressure and hematocrit above 30%.
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            Inhibitory Effect of Oral Sorbent on Accumulation of Albumin-Bound Indoxyl Sulfate in Serum of Experimental Uremic Rats

            Serum indoxyl sulfate, which is markedly accumulated in uremic patients, cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis due to its albumin binding. To determine if oral adsorbent (AST-120) can decrease its serum concentration in uremic state, oral adsorbent was administered to experimental nephrectomized uremic rats. Uremic rats fed with oral adsorbent showed a significantly lower serum concentration of indoxyl sulfate compared to control uremic rats, even when serum concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine were not significantly decreased in the uremic rats fed with oral adsorbent. Indoxyl sulfate was detected only at a lower concentration in bile as compared with the serum of uremic rats. These results suggest that oral adsorbent adsorbs indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, in the intestine and prevents the accumulation of indoxyl sulfate in uremic rats.
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              Effect of Oral Adsorbent (AST-120) on Renal Function, Acquired Renal Cysts and Aortic Calcification in Rats with Adriamycin Nephropathy

              Aims: The effect of oral adsorbent, AST-120, on the experimental renal disease induced by adriamycin, uninephrectomy and high protein diet proposed as a model of acquired cystic disease of the kidney was investigated. Methods: 3 mg of adriamycin was injected into the tail vein of rats and 4 weeks later right-side nephrectomy was performed, 2 weeks thereafter 26 rats with urinary protein excretion between 100 and 358 mg/day were selected from 60 rats. Two groups, 13 rats in each group, namely the AST-120-treated group and control group, both of which had equal renal damage before the administration of AST-120 or placebo. AST-120 (0.4 g/100 g BW/day) was administered for 19 weeks. Results: Serum creatinine and BUN in the AST-120-treated group were significantly lower (serum creatinine: 3.3 ± 2.1 vs. 7.1 ± 2.7 mg/dl, p < 0.003) and creatinine clearance was higher (0.62 ± 0.49 vs. 0.29 ± 0.30 ml/min, p < 0.05) at the final examination than in the control group. Survival rate which was examined using another set of 9 rats was higher in AST-120-treated rats than in AST-120-untreated rats. Serum indoxyl sulfate was significantly lower at all times after using AST-120 in the AST-120-treated group than in contrast to the control group. Histological examination revealed less severe interstitial and cystic changes in the AST-120-treated group. This suggests that AST-120 can prevent or retard the development of acquired renal cystic disease in this model. Aortic calcification tended to be less severe in the AST-120-treated group because of less serum Ca × P products. Conclusion: The AST-120-treated group significantly decreased serum creatinine and increased creatinine clearance with less severe renal cystic changes in this model during the later weeks of administration of AST-120 or at death, accompanied with the tendency of less severe aortic calcification.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                May 2006
                02 June 2006
                : 26
                : 2
                : 136-141
                aMDS Pharma Services, St-Laurent, Montreal, Canada; bSankyo Pharma Development, Edison, N.J., cMDS Pharma Services, New Orleans, La., and dSFBC International, Miami, Fla., USA
                92242 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:136–141
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 15, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/92242
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation


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