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      The Hippo kinases LATS1 and 2 control human breast cell fate via crosstalk with ERα

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          Abstract

          Cell fate perturbations underlie many human diseases, including breast cancer. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which breast cell fate are regulated are largely unknown. The mammary gland epithelium consists of differentiated luminal epithelial and basal myoepithelial cells, as well as undifferentiated stem cells and more restricted progenitors. Breast cancer originates from this epithelium, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie breast epithelial hierarchy remain ill-defined. Here, we use a high-content confocal image-based short hairpin RNA screen to identify tumour suppressors that regulate breast cell fate in primary human breast epithelial cells. We show that ablation of the large tumour suppressor kinases (LATS) 1 and 2 (refs 5, 6), which are part of the Hippo pathway, promotes the luminal phenotype and increases the number of bipotent and luminal progenitors, the proposed cells-of-origin of most human breast cancers. Mechanistically, we have identified a direct interaction between Hippo and oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) signalling. In the presence of LATS, ERα was targeted for ubiquitination and Ddb1–cullin4-associated-factor 1 (DCAF1)-dependent proteasomal degradation. Absence of LATS stabilized ERα and the Hippo effectors YAP and TAZ (hereafter YAP/TAZ), which together control breast cell fate through intrinsic and paracrine mechanisms. Our findings reveal a non-canonical (that is, YAP/TAZ-independent) effect of LATS in the regulation of human breast cell fate.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Hippo signaling: growth control and beyond.

          The Hippo pathway has emerged as a conserved signaling pathway that is essential for the proper regulation of organ growth in Drosophila and vertebrates. Although the mechanisms of signal transduction of the core kinases Hippo/Mst and Warts/Lats are relatively well understood, less is known about the upstream inputs of the pathway and about the downstream cellular and developmental outputs. Here, we review recently discovered mechanisms that contribute to the dynamic regulation of Hippo signaling during Drosophila and vertebrate development. We also discuss the expanding diversity of Hippo signaling functions during development, discoveries that shed light on a complex regulatory system and provide exciting new insights into the elusive mechanisms that regulate organ growth and regeneration.
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            The tumor suppressor p53 regulates polarity of self-renewing divisions in mammary stem cells.

            Stem-like cells may be integral to the development and maintenance of human cancers. Direct proof is still lacking, mainly because of our poor understanding of the biological differences between normal and cancer stem cells (SCs). Using the ErbB2 transgenic model of breast cancer, we found that self-renewing divisions of cancer SCs are more frequent than their normal counterparts, unlimited and symmetric, thus contributing to increasing numbers of SCs in tumoral tissues. SCs with targeted mutation of the tumor suppressor p53 possess the same self-renewal properties as cancer SCs, and their number increases progressively in the p53 null premalignant mammary gland. Pharmacological reactivation of p53 correlates with restoration of asymmetric divisions in cancer SCs and tumor growth reduction, without significant effects on additional cancer cells. These data demonstrate that p53 regulates polarity of cell division in mammary SCs and suggest that loss of p53 favors symmetric divisions of cancer SCs, contributing to tumor growth.
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              The Hippo pathway effectors TAZ and YAP in development, homeostasis and disease.

              Studies over the past 20 years have defined the Hippo signaling pathway as a major regulator of tissue growth and organ size. Diverse roles for the Hippo pathway have emerged, the majority of which in vertebrates are determined by the transcriptional regulators TAZ and YAP (TAZ/YAP). Key processes regulated by TAZ/YAP include the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis, movement and fate. Accurate control of the levels and localization of these factors is thus essential for early developmental events, as well as for tissue homeostasis, repair and regeneration. Recent studies have revealed that TAZ/YAP activity is regulated by mechanical and cytoskeletal cues as well as by various extracellular factors. Here, I provide an overview of these and other regulatory mechanisms and outline important developmental processes controlled by TAZ and YAP.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Nature
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                January 9 2017
                January 9 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nature20829
                28068668
                © 2017
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