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      Evaluation of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, efficacy, and safety data of low-dose ticagrelor versus standard dose in East Asians: a systematic review

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          East Asians are prone to higher systemic exposure and increased risk of bleeding compared to other races after administration of antiplatelet agent(s). The aim of this systematic review was to compare and evaluate the appropriateness of a lower dose versus standard dose of ticagrelor in East Asians. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies comparing low versus standard doses of ticagrelor in East Asian populations; a total of seven studies were included in the review. Pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamic (PD), clinical efficacy, and safety data were collected. PK data demonstrated that the C max and area under the curve (AUC) of ticagrelor increased dose-proportionally. PD data indicated that while the low dose of ticagrelor resulted in less antiplatelet activity in three of the five PD studies, in the other studies, there were no differences between low and standard doses. There were two clinical studies included in this review, which showed that the efficacy was similar between the low and standard doses, but both studies were limited by the number of patients included. While there were generally greater incidence of adverse events observed in the standard ticagrelor dose, the magnitude or actual difference between the two doses is difficult to determine due to lack of consistent data. In East Asians, the appropriateness of the low-dose ticagrelor cannot be determined based on the currently available evidence. Additional large-scale and longer duration studies are warranted.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Ticagrelor for Prevention of Ischemic Events After Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease.

          Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with heightened ischemic and bleeding risk in patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI).
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            Expert consensus document: World Heart Federation expert consensus statement on antiplatelet therapy in East Asian patients with ACS or undergoing PCI.

            Guideline recommendations on the use of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes and in those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been formulated by both the ACC/AHA and the ESC. These recommendations are based primarily on large, phase III, randomized, controlled trials of the P2Y12 inhibitors clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor. However, few East Asian patients have been included in the trials to assess the use of these agents, particularly the newer agents prasugrel and ticagrelor. Additionally, an increasing body of data suggests that East Asian patients have differing risk profiles for both thrombophilia and bleeding compared with white patients, and that a different 'therapeutic window' of on-treatment platelet reactivity might be appropriate in East Asian patients. Furthermore, a phenomenon referred to as the 'East Asian paradox' has been described, in which East Asian patients have a similar or even a lower rate of ischaemic events after PCI compared with white patients, despite a higher level of platelet reactivity during DAPT. Recognizing these concerns, the World Heart Federation has undertaken this evidence-based review and produced this expert consensus statement to determine the antiplatelet treatment strategies that are most appropriate for East Asian patients.
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              Ethnic differences in C-reactive protein concentrations.

              Limited data exist regarding the ethnic differences in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, an inflammatory marker associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that known CVD risk factors, including anthropometric characteristics, would explain much of the observed ethnic variation in CRP. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3154 women, without known CVD and not receiving hormone therapy, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multiethnic prospective study of pre- and perimenopausal women. The study population was 47.4% white, 27.7% African-American, 8.5% Hispanic, 7.7% Chinese, and 8.6% Japanese; mean age was 46.2 years. African-American women had the highest median CRP concentrations (3.2 mg/L), followed by Hispanic (2.3 mg/L), white (1.5 mg/L), Chinese (0.7 mg/L), and Japanese (0.5 mg/L) women (all pairwise P 3 mg/L (odds ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.07-1.75), whereas Chinese and Japanese ethnicities were inversely related (0.58, 0.35-0.95, and 0.43, 0.26-0.72, respectively). Modifiable risk factors, particularly BMI, account for much but not all of the ethnic differences in CRP concentrations. Further study is needed of these ethnic differences and their implications for the use of CRP in CVD risk prediction.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                08 January 2018
                : 14
                : 83-93
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yun Jeong Lee, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Dankook University, 119, Dandae-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, Chungnam, 31116, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 41 550 1445, Fax +82 41 559 7899, Email yunlee@ 123456dankook.ac.kr
                Seok-Yong Lee, Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066, Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 31 290 7718, Fax +82 31 290 7738, Email sylee@ 123456skku.ac.kr
                © 2018 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



                efficacy, safety, lower dose, east asians, korean, japanese, chinese, ticagrelor, p2y12 receptor antagonist


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