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      Cardiac cachexia: hic et nunc

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          Cardiac cachexia (CC) is the clinical entity at the end of the chronic natural course of heart failure (HF). Despite the efforts, even the most recent definition of cardiac cachexia has been challenged, more precisely, the addition of new criteria on top of obligatory weight loss. The pathophysiology of CC is complex and multifactorial. A better understanding of pathophysiological pathways in body wasting will contribute to establish potentially novel treatment strategies. The complex biochemical network related with CC and HF pathophysiology underlines that a single biomarker cannot reflect all of the features of the disease. Biomarkers that could pick up the changes in body composition before they convey into clinical manifestations of CC would be of great importance. The development of preventive and therapeutic strategies against cachexia, sarcopenia, and wasting disorders is perceived as an urgent need by healthcare professionals. The treatment of body wasting remains an unresolved challenge to this day. As CC is a multifactorial disorder, it is unlikely that any single agent will be completely effective in treating this condition. Among all investigated therapeutic strategies, aerobic exercise training in HF patients is the most proved to counteract skeletal muscle wasting and is recommended by treatment guidelines for HF.

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          Most cited references 196

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          ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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            An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: key concepts and advances in pulmonary rehabilitation.

            Pulmonary rehabilitation is recognized as a core component of the management of individuals with chronic respiratory disease. Since the 2006 American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Statement on Pulmonary Rehabilitation, there has been considerable growth in our knowledge of its efficacy and scope. The purpose of this Statement is to update the 2006 document, including a new definition of pulmonary rehabilitation and highlighting key concepts and major advances in the field. A multidisciplinary committee of experts representing the ATS Pulmonary Rehabilitation Assembly and the ERS Scientific Group 01.02, "Rehabilitation and Chronic Care," determined the overall scope of this update through group consensus. Focused literature reviews in key topic areas were conducted by committee members with relevant clinical and scientific expertise. The final content of this Statement was agreed on by all members. An updated definition of pulmonary rehabilitation is proposed. New data are presented on the science and application of pulmonary rehabilitation, including its effectiveness in acutely ill individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and in individuals with other chronic respiratory diseases. The important role of pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic disease management is highlighted. In addition, the role of health behavior change in optimizing and maintaining benefits is discussed. The considerable growth in the science and application of pulmonary rehabilitation since 2006 adds further support for its efficacy in a wide range of individuals with chronic respiratory disease.
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              Cachexia: a new definition.

              On December 13th and 14th a group of scientists and clinicians met in Washington, DC, for the cachexia consensus conference. At the present time, there is no widely agreed upon operational definition of cachexia. The lack of a definition accepted by clinician and researchers has limited identification and treatment of cachectic patient as well as the development and approval of potential therapeutic agents. The definition that emerged is: "cachexia, is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The prominent clinical feature of cachexia is weight loss in adults (corrected for fluid retention) or growth failure in children (excluding endocrine disorders). Anorexia, inflammation, insulin resistance and increased muscle protein breakdown are frequently associated with cachexia. Cachexia is distinct from starvation, age-related loss of muscle mass, primary depression, malabsorption and hyperthyroidism and is associated with increased morbidity. While this definition has not been tested in epidemiological or intervention studies, a consensus operational definition provides an opportunity for increased research.

                Author and article information

                J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
                J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle
                Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                01 July 2016
                June 2016
                : 7
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1002/jcsm.v7.3 )
                : 246-260
                [ 1 ] Department of CardiologyClinical Hospital Zvezdara BelgradeSerbia
                [ 2 ] School of MedicineUniversity of Belgrade BelgradeSerbia
                [ 3 ] Innovative Clinical Trials, Department of Cardiology and PneumologyUniversity Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) GöttingenGermany
                [ 4 ] Department of CardiologyCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinGermany
                [ 5 ] Center for Stroke Research BerlinCharité Universitätsmedizin BerlinGermany
                [ 6 ] Department of Cardiology and Department of Research and EducationGeneral Hospital Celje CeljeSlovenia
                [ 7 ] Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Ljubljana LjubljanaSlovenia
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Mitja Lainscak, Department of Cardiology, General Hospital Celje, Oblakova 5, SI‐3000 Celje, Slovenia: Fax: +386 3 423 36 66, Email: mitja.lainscak@
                JCSM12118 JCSM-D-16-00024
                © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Pages: 15
                Custom metadata
                June 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.1 mode:remove_FC converted:01.07.2016


                treatment, cachexia, heart failure, prevalence, diagnosis


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