3
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Perception of Menstrual Normality and Abnormality in Spanish Female Nursing Students

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Menstrual problems are usually taboo; and often, some, such as dysmenorrhea, are presumed normal. This study seeks to compare the menstrual characteristics and symptoms of female university students reporting self-perceived normality concerning their cycles and menstruation with those who perceive their menstruation as being abnormal. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 270 nursing students using a self-report questionnaire that included sociodemographic and gynecological issues, together with Visual Analog Scale, the Andersch and Milsom Scale, and the Spanish version of the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EuroQol-5D) to measure self-perceived health status. A bivariate analysis was performed using the chi-square test, linear trend chi-square, and Student’s t-test, and a multivariate analysis of stepwise binary logistic regression was performed to predict the perception of cycle abnormality. In total, 77.4% of participants displayed normality; however, in self-reporting of menstrual characteristics, 67.4% identified alterations. Young women suffering from menstrual dizziness were 1.997 (CI95% = 1.010–3.950; p = 0.047) more likely to manifest abnormal menstruation, 4.518 (CI95% = 1.239–16.477; p = 0.022) more likely if they suffered from Grade 3 menstrual pain, and 2.851 (CI95% = 1.399–5.809; p = 0.004) more likely if they perceived that menstruation interfered with their daily lives. Many menstrual changes and symptoms are still considered normal, making it difficult to identify and address these issues. Therefore, it is necessary to develop health policies and strategies to improve menstrual health literacy for increased knowledge and earlier diagnosis.

          Related collections

          Most cited references43

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          The impact of menstrual symptoms on everyday life: a survey among 42,879 women

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The etiquette of endometriosis: stigmatisation, menstrual concealment and the diagnostic delay.

            Kate Seear (2009)
            Endometriosis is a chronic gynaecological condition of uncertain aetiology characterised by menstrual irregularities. Several studies have previously identified a lengthy delay experienced by patients between the first onset of symptoms and eventual diagnosis. Various explanations have been advanced for the diagnostic delay, with both doctors and women being implicated. Such explanations include that doctors normalise women's menstrual pain and that women might delay in seeking medical advice because they have difficulty distinguishing between 'normal' and 'abnormal' menstruation. It has been suggested that the diagnostic delay could be reduced if women were trained in how to distinguish between 'normal' and 'abnormal' menstrual cycles. In this paper I argue that whilst these may be factors in the diagnostic delay, women's reluctance to disclose problems associated with their menstrual cycle may be a more significant and hitherto neglected factor. I argue women are reluctant to disclose menstrual irregularities because menstruation is a 'discrediting attribute' (Goffman, 1963) and disclosure renders women vulnerable to stigmatisation. Women actively conceal their menstrual irregularities through practices of the 'menstrual etiquette' (Laws, 1990) which involves the strategic concealment of menstrual problems. This argument is supported through an analysis of the experiences of 20 Australian women diagnosed with endometriosis. The ramifications of this analysis for chronic pain conditions more generally and for practical strategies designed to address the endometriosis diagnostic delay are considered.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              Self-care strategies and sources of knowledge on menstruation in 12,526 young women with dysmenorrhea: A systematic review and meta-analysis

              Introduction: Dysmenorrhea (period pain) is common and affects around three quarters of all young women under the age of 25. The majority of young women, for a variety of reasons, think of period pain as ‘normal’ and something to be managed or endured. This normalisation of pain often is reinforced by family and friends and results in young women using self-care strategies to manage their pain rather than seeking medical advice. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined observational studies reporting on the prevalence of different types of self-care, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical, self-rated effectiveness of self-care and the sources of information on menstruation in young women under 25 Methods: A search of Medline, PsychINFO, EMBASE and CINAHL in English was carried out from 1980 to December 2018. Studies that reported on menstrual self-care strategies in young women were included. Results: Nine hundred and forty-seven articles were screened. Twenty-four studies including 12,526 young women were eligible and included in the meta-analysis. Fifteen studies were from low, lower-middle or upper-middle-income countries (LMIC) and nine studies were from high income countries (HIC). Self-care was used by over half of all young women (55%, 95%CI 34.1–74.3) with both pharmaceutical (48%, 95%CI 40.0–57.0) and non-pharmaceutical (51.8%, 95%CI 31.3–71.7) options used. Paracetamol was the most common analgesic used (28.7%, 95%CI 19.6–39.9) but did not always provide sufficient pain relief in almost half of those using it. Contraceptive use was significantly higher (P<0.001) in HIC (22%) compared to LMIC (1%). Only 11% (95%CI 8.4–15.2) of young women reported seeing a medical doctor for their period pain. Conclusions: Self-care usage, both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical, was common, but young women were not necessarily choosing the most effective options for pain management. High-quality information on self-care for period pain is urgently needed.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                Int J Environ Res Public Health
                ijerph
                International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
                MDPI
                1661-7827
                1660-4601
                03 September 2020
                September 2020
                : 17
                : 17
                : 6432
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nursing, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva, Spain; abreu@ 123456denf.uhu.es
                [2 ]Department of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Castilla-La-Mancha, Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain; marialaura.parra@ 123456uclm.es (M.L.P.-F.); mariadolores.onieva@ 123456uclm.es (M.D.O.-Z.)
                Author notes
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1240-4611
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9681-1737
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1052-2182
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7700-999X
                Article
                ijerph-17-06432
                10.3390/ijerph17176432
                7504309
                32899383
                2de1b452-4eac-4696-9fea-5c6a16976c96
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 10 August 2020
                : 01 September 2020
                Categories
                Article

                Public health
                disorders menstrual,menstrual experiences,menstrual health
                Public health
                disorders menstrual, menstrual experiences, menstrual health

                Comments

                Comment on this article