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      Genetic analysis confirms the freshwater origin of the endemic Caspian sponges (Demospongiae, Spongillida, Metschnikowiidae)

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          The Caspian Sea is a unique inland brackish waterbody inhabited by highly endemic fauna. This fauna consists of species of both marine and freshwater origin. Some Caspian invertebrates cannot be confidently referred to as animals of either origin. The endemic monophyletic family of sponges, Metschnikowiidae , is among them. Although these sponges are considered as fresh water in the modern literature, no researcher has seen them alive for many years, and its status is actually unconfirmed. Here, we present the first photos of Metschnikowia tuberculata Grimm, 1877 and report evidence for its freshwater origin based on analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 sequences and partial sequences of CO1 gene. According to the genetic analysis, M. tuberculata belongs to the order Spongillida . We observed specimens of diverse appearance, but their spicule complement proved to be similar, and ITS sequences were identical. Thus, we conclude that they belong to the same species. The obtained results expand our knowledge about the dispersal ability of freshwater sponges.

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          Most cited references 32

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          BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence align- ment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT.

           TA Hall,  T.A HALL,  T. HALL (1999)
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            Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera)

            Background Demospongiae is the largest sponge class including 81% of all living sponges with nearly 7,000 species worldwide. Systema Porifera (2002) was the result of a large international collaboration to update the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on morphological data. Since then, an increasing number of molecular phylogenetic studies have considerably shaken this taxonomic framework, with numerous polyphyletic groups revealed or confirmed and new clades discovered. And yet, despite a few taxonomical changes, the overall framework of the Systema Porifera classification still stands and is used as it is by the scientific community. This has led to a widening phylogeny/classification gap which creates biases and inconsistencies for the many end-users of this classification and ultimately impedes our understanding of today’s marine ecosystems and evolutionary processes. In an attempt to bridge this phylogeny/classification gap, we propose to officially revise the higher taxa Demospongiae classification. Discussion We propose a revision of the Demospongiae higher taxa classification, essentially based on molecular data of the last ten years. We recommend the use of three subclasses: Verongimorpha, Keratosa and Heteroscleromorpha. We retain seven (Agelasida, Chondrosiida, Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, Verongiida) of the 13 orders from Systema Porifera. We recommend the abandonment of five order names (Hadromerida, Halichondrida, Halisarcida, lithistids, Verticillitida) and resurrect or upgrade six order names (Axinellida, Merliida, Spongillida, Sphaerocladina, Suberitida, Tetractinellida). Finally, we create seven new orders (Bubarida, Desmacellida, Polymastiida, Scopalinida, Clionaida, Tethyida, Trachycladida). These added to the recently created orders (Biemnida and Chondrillida) make a total of 22 orders in the revised classification. We propose the abandonment of the haplosclerid and poecilosclerid suborders. The family content of each order is also revised. Summary The deletion of polyphyletic taxa, the use of resurrected or new names for new clades and the proposal of new family groupings will improve the comparability of studies in a wide range of scientific fields using sponges as their object of study. It is envisaged that this will lead to new and more meaningful evolutionary hypotheses for the end-users of the Demospongiae classification.
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              The Caspian Lake: History, biota, structure, and function

               H. Dumont (1998)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                24 February 2020
                : 915
                : 1-16
                Affiliations
                [1 ] N. K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Science, Vavilova str., 26, Moscow, 119334, Russia A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science Moscow Russia
                [2 ] A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Science, Leninskij prosp. 33, Moscow, 119071, Russia N. K. Koltzov Institute of Developmental Biology, Russian Academy of Science Moscow Russia
                [3 ] Biological faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1 / 12, Moscow, 119991, Russia Moscow State University Moscow Russia
                [4 ] Limnological Institute of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Irkutsk, 664033, Russia Limnological Institute of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science Irkutsk Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Agniya M. Sokolova ( enfado@ 123456ya.ru )

                Academic editor: Pavel Stoev

                Article
                47460
                10.3897/zookeys.915.47460
                7052039
                Agniya M. Sokolova, Dmitry M. Palatov, Valeria B. Itskovich

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Spongillidae
                Genetics
                Systematics
                Asia
                Europe

                Animal science & Zoology

                spongillida , porifera , metschnikowia , its2, its1, co1, caspian sea

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