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      Impact of treating Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriers on wound infections in cardiac surgery


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          Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of postoperative wound infections, and nasal colonization by this organism is an important factor in the development of infections. Treatment with mupirocin can eradicate the organism in the short term, and prophylactic treatment of colonized patients may prevent postoperative S. aureus infections. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed to determine whether nasal mupirocin administered pre-operatively to S. aureus carriers reduces the rates of sternal and leg wound infections after cardiac surgery. The study enrolled 263 patients with nasal S. aureus undergoing elective cardiac surgery at St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Patients were assessed for infections in the immediate postoperative period and two months later. Two hundred and fifty-seven patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis and re-analysed according to the actual treatment applied. Wound infections occurred in 17 (13.5%) mupirocin recipients and 11 (9.1%) placebo recipients ( P = 0.319), with seven (5.4%) and six (4.7%) sternal infections, respectively. Two (1.6%) wound infections were acquired postoperatively in the mupirocin group, neither of which were caused by S. aureus. The placebo group had three (2.4%) nosocomial wound infections, with two (1.6%) S. aureus bacteraemias ( P = 0.243). Among patients receiving mupirocin, 106 (81.5%) cleared S. aureus compared with 59 (46.5%) patients receiving placebo ( P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference between intention-to-treat and actual treatment groups. Prophylactic intranasal mupirocin administered to S. aureus carriers did not reduce the rates of overall surgical site infections by S. aureus, and only showed a trend towards decreased incidence of nosocomial S. aureus infections.

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          Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections.

          Patients with nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus have an increased risk of surgical-site infections caused by that organism. Treatment with mupirocin ointment can reduce the rate of nasal carriage and may prevent postoperative S. aureus infections. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether intranasal treatment with mupirocin reduces the rate of S. aureus infections at surgical sites and prevents other nosocomial infections. Of 4030 enrolled patients who underwent general, gynecologic, neurologic, or cardiothoracic surgery, 3864 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Overall, 2.3 percent of mupirocin recipients and 2.4 percent of placebo recipients had S. aureus infections at surgical sites. Of the 891 patients (23.1 percent of the 3864 who completed the study) who had S. aureus in their anterior nares, 444 received mupirocin and 447 received placebo. Among the patients with nasal carriage of S. aureus, 4.0 percent of those who received mupirocin had nosocomial S. aureus infections, as compared with 7.7 percent of those who received placebo (odds ratio for infection, 0.49; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.25 to 0.92; P=0.02). Prophylactic intranasal application of mupirocin did not significantly reduce the rate of S. aureus surgical-site infections overall, but it did significantly decrease the rate of all nosocomial S. aureus infections among the patients who were S. aureus carriers.
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            Surgical wound infection rates by wound class, operative procedure, and patient risk index

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              Surgical site infections in orthopedic surgery: the effect of mupirocin nasal ointment in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

              The objective of this study was to determine whether use of mupirocin nasal ointment for perioperative eradication of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage is effective in preventing the development of surgical site infections (SSIs). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design was used. Either mupirocin or placebo nasal ointment was applied twice daily to 614 assessable patients from the day of admission to the hospital until the day of surgery. A total of 315 and 299 patients were randomized to receive mupirocin and placebo, respectively. Eradication of nasal carriage was significantly more effective in the mupirocin group (eradication rate, 83.5% versus 27.8%). In the mupirocin group, the rate of endogenous S. aureus infections was 5 times lower than in the placebo group (0.3% and 1.7%, respectively; relative risk, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.62). Mupirocin nasal ointment did not reduce the SSI rate (by S. aureus) or the duration of hospital stay.

                Author and article information

                J Hosp Infect
                J. Hosp. Infect
                The Journal of Hospital Infection
                The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                23 August 2006
                October 2006
                23 August 2006
                : 64
                : 2
                : 162-168
                [a ]Division of Internal Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [b ]Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                [c ]Division of Infectious Disease, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Address: St. Michael's Hospital, RM 4-179, CC Wing, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada. Tel.: +1 416 864 5746; fax: +1 416 864 5310. fongi@ 123456smh.toronto.on.ca
                Copyright © 2006 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 18 January 2006
                : 2 June 2006

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                mupirocin,staphylococcus aureus,cardiac surgery,wound infection,prevention


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