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      1* ,
      Journal of Green Building
      College Publishing
      Campus Outdoor Space, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Grasshopper® 3D, Microclimate

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          Open spaces—whether public, urban, or part of a campus—offer a variety of activities and opportunities to people. Therefore, open spaces should be considered a vital component of any built-up area and designed to meet the needs and address the comfort of potential users. Because of their presence in daily life and their preponderance of characteristics, open spaces have drawn the attention of many researchers, designers, and planners with varying perspectives. The current study takes a scientific approach to analyzing the environmental parameters of the Campus Outdoor Space (COS) in the case of the Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU). An extensive literature review supported the identification of seven important environmental parameters effective in the microscale analysis of a COS: geographical location, meteorological situation, urban form, surface materials, amount of vegetation and watershed, and anthropogenic pollution. Analysis of the environmental parameters called for a hybrid method that included a detailed field survey and the following set of simulations: sun-path, radiation, sky view factor, and turbulence analysis. The accuracy of the field survey directly contributed to the effectiveness of the simulations. Grasshopper® 3D software and Computational Fluid Dynamics were used to simulate the conditions of the EMU study area. The outcomes show that the spatial organization, building forms, and building orientation negatively affect the COS of EMU. In the Mediterranean climatic region of EMU, shade and flowing breezes greatly enhance comfort and usability of outdoor spaces from April to October. The massive form of buildings and minimal planning for effective building orientation to the sun increased heat storage capacity and neglected prevailing winds, resulting in flow separation and formation of eddies on the leeward side of buildings. These negatively influenced the microclimate, and thereby user comfort, at the core of the EMU’s main COS.

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              Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space?

              Well-designed public open space (POS) that encourages physical activity is a community asset that could potentially contribute to the health of local residents. In 1995-1996, two studies were conducted-an environmental audit of POS over 2 acres (n =516) within a 408-km2 area of metropolitan Perth, Western Australia; and personal interviews with 1803 adults (aged 18 to 59 years) (52.9% response rate). The association between access to POS and physical activity was examined using three accessibility models that progressively adjusted for distance to POS, and its attractiveness and size. In 2002, an observational study examined the influence of attractiveness on the use of POS by observing users of three pairs of high- and low-quality (based on attractiveness) POS matched for size and location. Overall, 28.8% of respondents reported using POS for physical activity. The likelihood of using POS increased with increasing levels of access, but the effect was greater in the model that adjusted for distance, attractiveness, and size. After adjustment, those with very good access to large, attractive POS were 50% more likely to achieve high levels of walking (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence level, 1.06-2.13). The observational study showed that after matching POS for size and location, 70% of POS users observed visited attractive POS. Access to attractive, large POS is associated with higher levels of walking. To increase walking, thoughtful design (and redesign) of POS is required that creates large, attractive POS with facilities that encourage active use by multiple users (e.g., walkers, sports participants, picnickers).

                Author and article information

                Journal of Green Building
                College Publishing
                Summer 2021
                16 September 2021
                : 16
                : 3
                : 217-236
                Author notes
                1.* Corresponding author email address: kamyar_fuladlu@ 123456yahoo.com

                1 Faculty of Architecture, Department of Architecture, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus, Postcode: 99628

                2 School of Computing and Technology, Department of Construction Technology, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, Cyprus, Postcode: 99628

                Page count
                Pages: 20
                Self URI (journal page): http://www.journalofgreenbuilding.com
                RESEARCH ARTICLES

                Urban design & Planning,Civil engineering,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Architecture,Environmental engineering
                Microclimate,Grasshopper® 3D,Computational Fluid Dynamics,Campus Outdoor Space


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