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      A new pygmy leafmining moth, Stigmella tatrica sp. n., from the alpine zone of the Tatra Mountains (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae)

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      Nota Lepidopterologica

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          Abstract

          Stigmella tatrica sp. n. is described from moths taken in the alpine zone of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. The new species is similar to several other montane species of Stigmella Schrank, 1802 in the S. aurella (Fabricius, 1775) group in external characters and male genitalia; its closest relative is S. dryadella (O. Hofmann, 1868). It is indistinguishable from S. tormentillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) by the colour and pattern elements of the forewing; however, it differs in the male genitalia in the shape and number of cornuti, in the female genitalia by long apophyses with protruding ovipositor, and by COI barcodes. Immature stages are unknown, but Dryas octopetala L. (Rosaceae) is the possible hostplant. The long ovipositor suggests an unusual, possibly hidden place for oviposition. The male and female adults and genitalia of both sexes are figured and photographs of the habitat are provided.

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          DNA barcoding of the leaf-mining moth subgenus Ectoedemia s. str. (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) with COI and EF1-α: two are better than one in recognising cryptic species

          We sequenced 665bp of the Cytochrome C Oxidase I (COI) barcoding marker for 257 specimens and 482bp of Elongation Factor 1-α (EF1-α) for 237 specimens belonging to the leafmining subgenus Ectoedemia ( Ectoedemia ) in the basal Lepidopteran family Nepticulidae. The dataset includes 45 out of 48 West Palearctic Ectoedemia s. str. species and several species from Africa, North America and Asia. Both COI and EF1-α proved reliable as an alternative to conventional species identification for the majority of species and the combination of both markers can aid in species validation. A clear barcode gap is not present, and in some species large K2P intraspecific pairwise differences are found, up to 6.85% in COI and 2.9% in EF1-α. In the Ectoedemia rubivora species complex, the species E. rubivora, E. arcuatella and E. atricollis share COI barcodes and could only be distinguished by EF1-α. Diagnostic base positions, usually third codon positions, are in this and other cases a useful addition to species delimitation, in addition to distance methods. Ectoedemia albifasciella COI barcodes fall into two distinct clusters not related to other characters, whereas these clusters are absent in EF1-α, possibly caused by mtDNA anomalies or hybridisation. In the Ectoedemia subbimaculella complex, both sequences fail to unequivocally distinguish the species E. heringi, E. liechtensteini, E. phyllotomella and one population of E. subbimaculella . DNA barcodes confirm that North American Ectoedemia argyropeza are derived from a European introduction. We strongly advocate the use of a nuclear marker in addition to the universal COI barcode marker for better identifying species, including cryptic ones.
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            A Global Phylogeny of Leafmining Ectoedemia Moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): Exploring Host Plant Family Shifts and Allopatry as Drivers of Speciation

            Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Methodology Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. Significance We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different clades.
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              Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea)

              Abstract A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites . We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae , largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose the following 37 new synonymies for species (35 in Nepticulidae , 2 in Opostegidae ): Stigmella acerifoliella Dovnar-Zapolski, 1969 (unavailable, = Stigmella acerna Puplesis, 1988), Stigmella nakamurai Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmella palionisi Puplesis, 1984), Nepticula amseli Skala, 1941 (unavailable = Stigmella birgittae Gustafsson, 1985), Stigmella cathepostis Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmella microtheriella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmella populnea Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmella nivenburgensis (Preissecker, 1942)), Nepticula obscurella Braun, 1912 (revised synonymy, = Stigmella myricafoliella (Busck, 1900)), Nepticula mandingella Gustafsson, 1972 (= Stigmella wollofella (Gustafsson, 1972)), Stigmella rosaefoliella pectocatena Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= Stigmella centifoliella (Zeller, 1848)), Micropteryx pomivorella Packard, 1870 (= Stigmella oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854)), Stigmella crataegivora Puplesis, 1985 (= Stigmella micromelis Puplesis, 1985), Stigmella scinanella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (= Stigmella purpuratella (Braun, 1917)), Stigmella palmatae Puplesis, 1984 (= Stigmella filipendulae (Wocke, 1871)), Stigmella sesplicata Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmella lediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmella rhododendrifolia Dovnar-Zapolski & Tomilova, 1978 (unavailable, = Stigmella lediella (Schleich, 1867)), Stigmella oa Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985 (= Stigmella spiculifera Kemperman & Wilkinson, 1985), Stigmella gracilipae Hirano, 2014 (= Stigmella monticulella Puplesis, 1984), Nepticula chaoniella Herrich-Schäffer, 1863 (= Stigmella samiatella (Zeller, 1839)), Bohemannia piotra Puplesis, 1984 (= Bohemannia pulverosella (Stainton, 1849)), Bohemannia nipponicella Hirano, 2010 (= Bohemannia manschurella Puplesis, 1984), Sinopticula sinica Yang, 1989 (= Glaucolepis oishiella (Matsumura, 1931)), Trifurcula collinella Nel, 2012 (= Glaucolepis magna (A. Laštuvka & Z. Laštuvka, 1997)), Obrussa tigrinella Puplesis, 1985 (= Etainia trifasciata (Matsumura, 1931)), Microcalyptris vittatus Puplesis, 1984 and Microcalyptris arenosus Falkovitsh, 1986 (both = Acalyptris falkovitshi (Puplesis, 1984)), Ectoedemia castaneae Busck, 1913, Ectoedemia heinrichi Busck, 1914 and Ectoedemia helenella Wilkinson, 1981 (all three = Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878)), Ectoedemia chloranthis Meyrick, 1928 and Ectoedemia acanthella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 (both = Zimmermannia grandisella (Chambers, 1880)), Ectoedemia coruscella Wilkinson, 1981 (= Zimmermannia mesoloba (Davis, 1978)), Ectoedemia piperella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 and Ectoedemia reneella Wilkinson, 1981 (both = Zimmermannia obrutella (Zeller, 1873)), Ectoedemia similigena Puplesis, 1994 (= Ectoedemia turbidella (Zeller, 1848)), Ectoedemia andrella Wilkinson, 1981 (= Ectoedemia ulmella (Braun, 1912)), Nepticula canadensis Braun, 1917 (= Ectoedemia minimella (Zetterstedt, 1839)), Opostega rezniki Kozlov, 1985 (= Opostega cretatella Chrétien, 1915), Pseudopostega cyrneochalcopepla Nel & Varenne, 2012 (= Pseudopostega chalcopepla (Walsingham, 1908)). Stigmella caryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) and Zimmermannia bosquella (Chambers, 1878) are taken out of synonymy and re-instated as full species. Lectotypes are designated for Trifurcula obrutella Zeller, 1873 and Nepticula grandisella Chambers, 1880.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nota Lepidopterologica
                NL
                Pensoft Publishers
                2367-5365
                0342-7536
                June 13 2017
                June 13 2017
                : 40
                : 1
                : 131-140
                Article
                10.3897/nl.40.12674
                © 2017

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