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      Efficacy and safety of once-daily glycopyrronium in predominantly Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the GLOW7 study

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          Glycopyrronium is a once-daily (od) long-acting muscarinic antagonist for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The GLOW7 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of od glycopyrronium 50 μg in predominantly Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe COPD.


          In this 26-week, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, men and women ≥40 years with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomized to glycopyrronium 50 μg od or placebo (2:1). The primary objective was to confirm the significant improvement of trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1) following 12 weeks of treatment with glycopyrronium compared with placebo. Secondary objectives included the effect of glycopyrronium on health status (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire), breathlessness (Transition Dyspnea Index), other lung function parameters, rescue medication use, and COPD exacerbations. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated.


          Of the 460 patients randomized, 459 were included in the full analysis set (glycopyrronium, n=306; placebo, n=154; mean age 64.7 years; mean post-bronchodilator FEV 1: 50.8% predicted); 425 (92.4%) completed the study. At Week 12, glycopyrronium signifcantly improved trough FEV 1 with a least square means treatment difference of 141 mL (95% confidence interval 111 mL, 171 mL; P<0.001) compared with placebo. The mean treatment effect of glycopyrronium was greater than the minimum clinically important difference versus placebo in both St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score (−4.92; P<0.001) and Transition Dyspnea Index focal score (1.0; P<0.001) at week 26. Glycopyrronium reduced the risk of exacerbations in terms of time to first moderate or severe exacerbation by 28% ( P=0.153) and rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbation by 29% ( P=0.119) compared with placebo. Incidence of death was 1.3% with glycopyrronium and 0% in placebo during the treatment period. Overall incidence of adverse events (glycopyrronium 43.6%; placebo 47.4%) and serious adverse events (glycopyrronium 5.6%; placebo 9.1%) were similar.


          In predominantly Chinese patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, od glycopyrronium 50 μg significantly improved lung function, dyspnea, and health status compared with placebo. The safety and tolerability profile of glycopyrronium was comparable to placebo.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of COPD

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            Once-daily bronchodilators for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: indacaterol versus tiotropium.

             J Swales,  Charles Fogarty,   (2010)
            Indacaterol is the first once-daily, long-acting inhaled beta(2)-agonist bronchodilator studied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To demonstrate greater efficacy of indacaterol versus placebo on FEV(1) at 24 hours post dose (trough) after 12 weeks, to compare efficacy with placebo and tiotropium, and to evaluate safety and tolerability over 26 weeks. Patients with moderate-to-severe COPD were randomized to double-blind indacaterol 150 or 300 microg or placebo, or open-label tiotropium 18 microg, all once daily, for 26 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was trough FEV(1) at 12 weeks. Additional analyses (not adjusted for multiplicity) included transition dyspnea index (TDI), health status (St George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]), and exacerbations. Serum potassium, blood glucose, and QTc interval were measured. A total of 1,683 patients (age, 63.3 yr; post-bronchodilator FEV(1), 56% predicted; FEV(1)/FVC, 0.53) were randomized to the four treatment arms. Trough FEV(1) at Week 12 increased versus placebo by 180 ml with both indacaterol doses and by 140 ml with tiotropium (all P < 0.001 vs. placebo). At Week 26, for indacaterol 150/300 microg, respectively, versus placebo, TDI increased (1.00/1.18, P < 0.001) and SGRQ total score decreased (-3.3/-2.4, P < 0.01); corresponding results with tiotropium were 0.87 (P < 0.001) for TDI and (-1.0, P = not significant) for SGRQ total score. The incidence of adverse events, low serum potassium, high blood glucose, and prolonged QTc interval was similar across treatments. Indacaterol was an effective once-daily bronchodilator and was at least as effective as tiotropium in improving clinical outcomes for patients with COPD. Clinical trial registered with (NCT 00463567).
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              Impact of exacerbations on COPD.

               A Anzueto (2010)
              Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) determine disease-associated morbidity, mortality, resource burden and healthcare costs. Acute exacerbation care requirements range from unscheduled primary care visits to emergency room, inpatient or intensive care, generating significant costs in COPD. Even after an exacerbation resolves, respiratory, physical, social and emotional impairment may persist for prolonged time. Frequent exacerbations, mainly in patients with severe COPD, accelerate disease progression and mortality. Thus, patients with frequent exacerbations have a more rapid decline in lung function, worse quality of life and decreased exercise performance. Management of COPD directed to reduce incidence and severity of exacerbations improves long-term health status and conserves health care resources and costs.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                05 January 2015
                : 10
                : 57-68
                [1 ]Beijing Hospital, Dongcheng District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Hainan Provincial People’s Hospital, Xiuying District, Haikou, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Beijing Novartis Pharma Co Ltd, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Novartis Horsham Research Centre, Horsham, West Sussex, UK
                [5 ]Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chen Wang, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, 2 Yinghua Dongjie, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 139 0112 2992, Email cyh-birm@
                © 2015 Wang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                health status, bronchodilation, copd, dyspnea, exacerbations, glycopyrronium


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