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      Effect of Blend of Essential Oils on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality, Intestinal Morphology, Serum Biochemistry, and Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a blend of essential oils from eucalyptus, citrus, bromohexene HCl, thymole and camphor on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, intestinal morphology, serum biochemistry, and immune response of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old chicks were divided into four groups, each with six replicates containing ten birds. The experiment was conducted under a completely randomized design (CRD). Different concentrations of the oil blend (0mL/kg, 0.15mL/kg, 0.30mL/kg and 0.45mL/kg) were added to the diet. The findings showed that, in comparison to the other groups, the birds that were given a blend of essential oils at concentrations of 0.30 and 0.45 mL/kg showed improved weight gain, feed efficiency, carcass yield, villus height, crypt depth, and greater immune response against Newcastle disease vaccination (p<0.05). Nonetheless, there was no statistically significant difference in the yields of the breast and thighs, feed consumption, mortality, weights of the liver, wing, heart, and gizzard, or abdominal fat between the treatments. The addition of a blend of essential oils at the doses of 0.30 and 0.45 mL/kg significantly lowered the pH of the meat in comparison to the other groups (p<0.05). All blood biochemical markers, including total serum protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid, revealed no variations between the treatments. In conclusion, adding 0.30mL/kg of a blend of essential oils to broiler diets may be the optimum level to improve overall performance without adversely affecting the blood biochemical profile.

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          Most cited references61

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          Essential oil and aromatic plants as feed additives in non-ruminant nutrition: a review

          This paper summarizes the current knowledge regarding the possible modes of action and nutritional factors involved in the use of essential oils (EOs) for swine and poultry. EOs have recently attracted increased interest as feed additives to be fed to swine and poultry, possibly replacing the use of antibiotic growth promoters which have been prohibited in the European Union since 2006. In general, EOs enhance the production of digestive secretions and nutrient absorption, reduce pathogenic stress in the gut, exert antioxidant properties and reinforce the animal’s immune status, which help to explain the enhanced performance observed in swine and poultry. However, the mechanisms involved in causing this growth promotion are far from being elucidated, since data on the complex gut ecosystem, gut function, in vivo oxidative status and immune system are still lacking. In addition, limited information is available regarding the interaction between EOs and feed ingredients or other feed additives (especially pro- or prebiotics and organic acids). This knowledge may help feed formulators to better utilize EOs when they formulate diets for poultry and swine.
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            Effect of a commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in broiler chickens

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              Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds: from in vitro results to in vivo evidence.

              Over last decade an increasing interest for antioxidants in foods has arisen. The healthy properties of antioxidants related to the prevention of degenerative diseases are the main cause of this boom. An antioxidant prevents the oxidation process, the initial step of development of degenerative diseases, cancer and many others. Literature encompasses analytical methodology development to assess antioxidant properties of foods and beverages. The screening of antioxidant activity of foodstuffs is the subject of a large number of articles. Special interest has been addressed to wine, tea and chocolate. However, the crucial key in the prevention of disease is the action these antioxidants exert after their consumption. Studies involving human subjects are scarce due to the requirements of availability of volunteers and conditions to test are limited. This review summarizes data related to in vitro antioxidant activity of foods, emphasizing the main role of phenolic compounds. A critical comparison is realized between the biological significance of these values and the biological significance of in vivo measurements. In addition, the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity is evaluated and selected as biomarker for in vivo antioxidant status of human organism. In a second part, data collected from different intervention studies performed up to date are compiled and discussed. This review summarized data related to in vitro antioxidant activity of foods, emphasizing the main role of phenolic compounds. A critical comparison is realized between the biological significance of these values and the biological significance of in vivo measurements. In addition, the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity is evaluated and selected as biomarker for in vivo antioxidant status of human organism. In a second part, data collected from different intervention studies performed up to date are compiled and discussed. The original contribution of this work is to compile data of Plasma Antioxidant Capacity after dietetic intervention studies taking into account the portion of food ingested. In addition, we calculated the antioxidant compounds content (phenolic content, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and carotenoids) contained in each food ingested to evaluate better their impact in Plasma Antioxidant Capacity. Intervention studies are grouped by the length of intervention and type of food ingested. Results reported in literature reveal that the increment in Plasma Antioxidant Capacity largely depends on analytical method used.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rbca
                Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science
                Braz. J. Poult. Sci.
                Fundação de Apoio à Ciência e Tecnologia Avicolas (Campinas, SP, Brazil )
                1516-635X
                1806-9061
                2024
                : 26
                : 1
                : eRBCA-2023-1853
                Affiliations
                [4] Lahore Punjab orgnameUniversity of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Department of Pathology Pakistan
                [11] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Institute of Continuing Education and Extension Pakistan
                [2] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Faculty of Animal Production and Technology orgdiv2Department of Animal Nutrition Pakistan
                [15] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Faculty of Animal Production and Technology orgdiv2Department of Breeding and Genetics Pakistan
                [9] Springfield IL orgnameOffice of Human and Animal Food Operation orgdiv1Food Safety Officer USA
                [14] Riyadh Riyadh orgnameKing Saud University orgdiv1College of Science orgdiv2Department of Biochemistry Saudi Arabia
                [3] Faisalabad Punjab orgnameUniversity of Agriculture orgdiv1Toba Tek Sing Pakistan
                [6] Bahawalpur orgnameThe Islamia University of Bahawalpur orgdiv1Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv2Department of Poultry Science Pakistan
                [7] Lahore Punjab orgnameUniversity of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Department of Veterinary Surgery Pakistan
                [10] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Faculty of Veterinary Science orgdiv2Department of Theriogenology Pakistan
                [5] Sakrand orgnameShaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Department of Poultry Production Pakistan
                [18] Bahawalpur orgnameThe Islamia University of Bahawalpur orgdiv1Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv2Department of Animal Nutrition Pakistan
                [17] Sakrand orgnameShaheed Benazir Bhutto University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Department of Dairy Technology Pakistan
                [8] Bahawalpur orgnameThe Islamia University of Bahawalpur orgdiv1Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv2Department of Theriogenology Pakistan
                [13] Riyadh Riyadh orgnameKing Saud University orgdiv1College of Science orgdiv2Department of Zoology Saudi Arabia
                [1] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Faculty of Animal Production and Technology orgdiv2Department of Poultry Science Pakistan
                [12] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Faculty of Veterinary Science orgdiv2Department of Pathology Pakistan
                [16] Bahawalpur orgnameCholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences orgdiv1Faculty of Animal Production and Technology orgdiv2Department of Meat Technology Pakistan
                Article
                S1516-635X2024000100318 S1516-635X(24)02600100318
                10.1590/1806-9061-2023-1853
                2e0e0cb3-697e-43e9-ace6-a2beb007e079

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 02 February 2024
                : 21 November 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 0
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Categories
                Original Article

                carcass characteristics,growth,Essential oils,serum biochemistry,meat quality

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