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      Allele specific expression in worker reproduction genes in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

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          Methylation has previously been associated with allele specific expression in ants. Recently, we found methylation is important in worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. Here we searched for allele specific expression in twelve genes associated with worker reproduction in bees. We found allele specific expression in Ecdysone 20 monooxygenase and IMP-L2-like. Although we were unable to confirm a genetic or epigenetic cause for this allele specific expression, the expression patterns of the two genes match those predicted for imprinted genes.

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          Most cited references 34

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          A new mathematical model for relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR.

           M. Pfaffl (2001)
          Use of the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify cDNA products reverse transcribed from mRNA is on the way to becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study low abundance gene expression. Real-time PCR is easy to perform, provides the necessary accuracy and produces reliable as well as rapid quantification results. But accurate quantification of nucleic acids requires a reproducible methodology and an adequate mathematical model for data analysis. This study enters into the particular topics of the relative quantification in real-time RT-PCR of a target gene transcript in comparison to a reference gene transcript. Therefore, a new mathematical model is presented. The relative expression ratio is calculated only from the real-time PCR efficiencies and the crossing point deviation of an unknown sample versus a control. This model needs no calibration curve. Control levels were included in the model to standardise each reaction run with respect to RNA integrity, sample loading and inter-PCR variations. High accuracy and reproducibility (<2.5% variation) were reached in LightCycler PCR using the established mathematical model.
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            Computational Many-Particle Physics

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              Target mRNAs are repressed as efficiently by microRNA-binding sites in the 5' UTR as in the 3' UTR.

              In animals, microRNAs (miRNAs) bind to the 3' UTRs of their target mRNAs and interfere with translation, although the exact mechanism of inhibition of protein synthesis remains unclear. Functional miRNA-binding sites in the coding regions or 5' UTRs of endogenous mRNAs have not been identified. We studied the effect of introducing miRNA target sites into the 5' UTR of luciferase reporter mRNAs containing internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), so that potential steric hindrance by a microribonucleoprotein complex would not interfere with the initiation of translation. In human HeLa cells, which express endogenous let-7a miRNA, the translational efficiency of these IRES-containing reporters with 5' let-7 complementary sites from the Caenorhabditis elegans lin-41 3' UTR was repressed. Similarly, the IRES-containing reporters were translationally repressed when human Ago2 was tethered to either the 5' or 3' UTR. Interestingly, the method of DNA transfection affected our ability to observe miRNA-mediated repression. Our results suggest that association with any position on a target mRNA is mechanistically sufficient for a microribonucleoprotein to exert repression of translation at some step downstream of initiation.

                Author and article information

                PeerJ Inc. (San Francisco, USA )
                14 July 2015
                : 3
                [1 ]Department of Biology, University of Leicester , UK
                [2 ]Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester , UK
                © 2015 Amarasinghe et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.

                Funded by: NERC
                Award ID: NE/H010408/1
                This work was financially supported by NERC grant no. NE/H010408/1 to EBM. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Animal Behavior
                Evolutionary Studies

                epigenetics, ecdysone, hymenoptera, social insect


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