Evolutionary adaptation can be rapid and potentially help species counter stressful
conditions or realize ecological opportunities arising from climate change. The challenges
are to understand when evolution will occur and to identify potential evolutionary
winners as well as losers, such as species lacking adaptive capacity living near physiological
limits. Evolutionary processes also need to be incorporated into management programmes
designed to minimize biodiversity loss under rapid climate change. These challenges
can be met through realistic models of evolutionary change linked to experimental
data across a range of taxa.