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      Effects of Galanin and the Galanin Receptor Antagonist Galantide on Plasma Catecholamine Levels during a Psychosocial Stress Stimulus in Rats

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          Abstract

          The aim of this study was to investigate the role played by the neuropeptide galanin (GAL) in the regulation of sympathoadrenal function. We evaluated the effects of rat GAL (rGAL) and of the putative GAL receptor antagonist galantide (GLT) on epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) plasma levels in conscious freely moving male rats, during a psychosocial stress condition. Four groups of male rats were challenged by a stress stimulus, obtained by exposing the animals to a resident conspecific fighter (intruder model), following an intravenous injection with (1) rGAL + saline (SAL), (2) GLT + SAL, (3) rGAL + GLT, or (4) SAL + SAL. Plasma levels of both E and NE were also measured in an additional group of male rats not exposed to any stressor stimulus. The results (mean ± SEM) showed that rats exposed to the stressor stimulus (intruder rats) exhibited a significant increase above baseline in circulating levels of both E (peak values of 834.13 ± 115.13 pmol/l vs. basal values of 309.31 ± 32.93 pmol/l; p < 0.01) and NE (peak values of 5,299.03 ± 450.62 pmol/l vs. basal values of 2,798.24 ± 311.56 pmol/l; p < 0.01) in comparison to control, nonstressed rats. The comparison of the areas under the curve response (AUC) among treatments in the intruder rats revealed that rGAL + SAL injections resulted in a further increase in E levels when compared to SAL + SAL treatment (AUC values: 8.26 ± 0.64 vs. 25.38 ± 5.52 nmol/l/20 min in SAL + SAL vs. rGAL + SAL treatment, respectively; p < 0.02). No significant changes in stress-induced E plasma levels were found following GLT + SAL treatment in comparison to SAL + SAL injections. When the intruder rats were submitted to rGAL + GLT injections, the increments in E levels were found to be higher than those observed following SAL + SAL treatment (AUC values: 8.26 ± 0.64 vs. 36.00 ± 13.76 nmol/l/20 min in SAL + SAL vs. rGAL + GLT treatment, p < 0.03); however, the values were not significantly different from those observed in rGAL + SAL-injected rats. No significant changes in stress-induced NE levels were found in either treatment group when compared to SAL + SAL-injected intruder rats. The results of this study demonstrate that rGAL administration leads to an increase in the E response to the stress stimulus without any effect on NE response. Galantide does not affect either the physiological stress-induced elevation of plasma catecholamines or the effects of rGAL on E plasma levels in response to stress. Therefore, GLT does not appear to behave as a GAL receptor antagonist in the regulation of sympathoadrenal function in rats.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Galanin - a novel biologically active peptide from porcine intestine.

          The isolation of a novel biologically active peptide, designated galanin, is described. The peptide was discovered by the detection of its C-terminal amide structure in porcine intestinal extract using a chemical method. It was found that galanin consists of 29 amino acids and the complete amino acid sequence is: Gly-Trp-Thr-Leu-Asn-Ser-Ala-Gly-Tyr-Leu-Leu-Gly-Pro-His-Ala-Ile-Asp-Asn-His -Arg-Ser -Phe-His-Asp-Lys-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Ala-NH2. Galanin was found to contract smooth muscle preparations from the rat and to cause a mild and sustained hyperglycemia in dog.
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            Anatomy and physiology of central galanin-containing pathways

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              The novel high-affinity antagonist, galantide, blocks the galanin-mediated inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1998
                January 1998
                16 January 1998
                : 67
                : 1
                : 67-72
                Affiliations
                Departments of a Geriatrics and b Biology and Physiology, University of Parma, and c Department of Internal Medicine, University of Modena, Italy
                Article
                54300 Neuroendocrinology 1998;67:67–72
                10.1159/000054300
                9485171
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Adrenal Steroids, Proopiomelanocortin and Stress

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