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      Effect of Use of Instructional Materials on Self-Help Skills of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Abuja School for The Handicapped, Abuja, Nigeria

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          Abstract

          INTRODUCTION: One role of special education is to increase the functional independence of children receiving services. Practitioners have used systematic instruction to teach academic, social, self-help, recreation/leisure, and vocational skills to different categories of children.

          OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the nature of self-help skills of children with intellectual disabilities and to determine the efficacy of instructional materials employed to teach self-help skills to children with intellectual disabilities.

          METHODS: Using descriptive statistics to analyse the research questions. The researchers purposively and conveniently assigned eight (8) children as participants, diagnosed with intellectual disabilities and have identified deficits in either personal care and hygiene such as teeth brushing, dressing and cleaning of drooling, as identified by the teachers, with three sets of instruments: Ihenacho Cognitive Domain Measurement Profile (ICDMP) and Collection of Materials for Self-Help Skills (CMSKS) to collect data.

          RESULTS: The results revealed that there was significant improvement in the ability to use a toothbrush in brushing teeth of the children in the second group and improvement in the experimental group using a toothbrush, the ability to use a handkerchief to clean drooling and ability to use detergent to wash clothes of the children in the second group and improvement in the experimental group using detergent.

          CONCLUSION: The study recommended that teachers and caregivers of children with intellectual disabilities should help in the acquisition of hygiene protection skills and behaviour through training.

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          Most cited references7

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          Teaching daily living skills to children with autism in unsupervised settings through pictorial self-management.

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            Computer- and video-based instruction of food-preparation skills: acquisition, generalization, and maintenance.

            The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based video instruction (CBVI) program to teach life skills. Three middle school-aged students with intellectual disabilities were taught how to make a sandwich, use a microwave, and set the table with a CBVI software package. A multiple probe across behaviors design was used to evaluate for a functional relation between the software and skill acquisition. All students increased the percentage of steps completed in the correct order after receiving CBVI. During maintenance probes, the performance of all students deteriorated; after a single review session with CBVI, all students regained previous levels of performance, tentatively indicating a role of CBVI as a tool for reviewing previously mastered material. Results are discussed in terms of the use of CBVI for providing students sufficient learning trials on tasks that require the use of consumable products (e.g., food).
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              To ID or not to ID? Changes in classification rates of intellectual disability using DSM-5.

              The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability (ID) include a change to the definition of adaptive impairment. New criteria require impairment in one adaptive domain rather than two or more skill areas. The authors examined the diagnostic implications of using a popular adaptive skill inventory, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition, with 884 clinically referred children (ages 6-16). One hundred sixty-six children met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ID; significantly fewer (n  =  151, p  =  .001) met ID criteria under DSM-5 (9% decrease). Implementation of DSM-5 criteria for ID may substantively change the rate of ID diagnosis. These findings highlight the need for a combination of psychometric assessment and clinical judgment when implementing the adaptive deficits component of the DSM-5 criteria for ID diagnosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.26407
                Journal for ReAttach Therapy and Developmental Diversities
                JRTDD
                ReAttach Therapy International Foundation
                2589-7799
                13 May 2019
                08 September 2019
                : 2
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Communication and Behaviour Disorders, Federal College of Education (Special) Oyo State, Nigeria
                [2 ]Department of Special Education, Faculty of Education, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Rufus Olanrewaju Adebisi ( aderufus2@ 123456gmail.com )
                Article
                10.26407/2019jrtdd.1.15
                2e1b8e58-56d8-4698-b8d7-b0c25952325a
                © Adebisi, OR., Jerry, EJ.

                This is an open access article published by ReAttach Therapy International Foundation and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Special Education Research

                Pediatrics,Psychology,Special education,Health & Social care,Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                Instructional Materials,Intellectual Disabilities,Independence,Self-Help Skill,Self-Management skills

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