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      Recomendações para o tratamento da síndrome de Sjögren Translated title: Recommendations for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome

      review-article
      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 2 , 8 , 4 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 16 , 17
      Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
      Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia
      Sjögren's syndrome, Treatment, Recommendations, Guidelines, Systematic review, Síndrome de Sjögren, Tratamento, Recomendações, Diretrizes, Revisão sistemática

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          Abstract

          RESUMOAs recomendações propostas pela Comissão de Síndrome de Sjögren da Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia para tratamento da síndrome de Sjögren foram baseadas em uma revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases de dados Medline (PubMed) e Cochrane até outubro de 2014 e opinião de especialistas na ausência de artigos sobre o assunto. Foram incluídos 131 artigos classificados de acordo com Oxford & Grade. Essas recomendações foram elaboradas com o objetivo de orientar o manejo adequado e facilitar o acesso aos tratamentos para aqueles pacientes com adequada indicação de recebê-los, considerando o contexto socioeconômico brasileiro e os medicamentos disponíveis no país.

          Translated abstract

          ABSTRACTThe recommendations proposed by the Sjögren's Syndrome Committee of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology for the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome were based on a systematic review of literature in Medline (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases until October 2014 and on expert opinion in the absence of studies on the subject. 131 articles classified according to Oxford & Grade were included. These recommendations were developed in order to guide the management and facilitate the access to treatment for those patients with an appropriate indication, considering the Brazilian socioeconomic context and pharmacological agents available in this country.

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          Mycophenolate mofetil improves lung function in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

          Small series suggest mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is well tolerated and may be an effective therapy for connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). We examined the tolerability and longitudinal changes in pulmonary physiology in a large and diverse cohort of patients with CTD-ILD treated with MMF. We identified consecutive patients evaluated at our center between January 2008 and January 2011 and prescribed MMF for CTD-ILD. We assessed safety and tolerability of MMF and used longitudinal data analyses to examine changes in pulmonary physiology over time, before and after initiation of MMF. We identified 125 subjects treated with MMF for a median 897 days. MMF was discontinued in 13 subjects. MMF was associated with significant improvements in estimated percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) from MMF initiation to 52, 104, and 156 weeks (4.9% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01; 6.1% ± 1.8%, p = 0.0008; and 7.3% ± 2.6%, p = 0.004, respectively); and in estimated percentage predicted diffusing capacity (DLCO%) from MMF initiation to 52 and 104 weeks (6.3% ± 2.8%, p = 0.02; 7.1% ± 2.8%, p = 0.01). In the subgroup without usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP)-pattern injury, MMF significantly improved FVC% and DLCO%, and in the subgroup with UIP-pattern injury, MMF was associated with stability in FVC% and DLCO%. In a large diverse cohort of CTD-ILD, MMF was well tolerated and had a low rate of discontinuation. Treatment with MMF was associated with either stable or improved pulmonary physiology over a median 2.5 years of followup. MMF appears to be a promising therapy for the spectrum of CTD-ILD.
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            Effectiveness of rituximab treatment in primary Sjögren's syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

            To study the efficacy and safety of B cell depletion with rituximab, a chimeric murine/human anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with active primary SS, as determined by the revised American-European Consensus Group criteria, and a rate of stimulated whole saliva secretion of > or =0.15 ml/minute were treated with either rituximab (1,000 mg) or placebo infusions on days 1 and 15. Patients were assigned randomly to a treatment group in a ratio of 2:1 (rituximab:placebo). Followup was conducted at 5, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. The primary end point was the stimulated whole saliva flow rate, while secondary end points included functional, laboratory, and subjective variables. Thirty patients with primary SS (29 female) were randomly allocated to a treatment group. The mean +/- SD age of the patients receiving rituximab was 43 +/- 11 years and the disease duration was 63 +/- 50 months, while patients in the placebo group were age 43 +/- 17 years and had a disease duration of 67 +/- 63 months. In the rituximab group, significant improvements, in terms of the mean change from baseline compared with that in the placebo group, were found for the primary end point of the stimulated whole saliva flow rate (P = 0.038 versus placebo) and also for various laboratory parameters (B cell and rheumatoid factor [RF] levels), subjective parameters (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI] scores and visual analog scale [VAS] scores for sicca symptoms), and extraglandular manifestations. Moreover, in comparison with baseline values, rituximab treatment significantly improved the stimulated whole saliva flow rate (P = 0.004) and several other variables (e.g., B cell and RF levels, unstimulated whole saliva flow rate, lacrimal gland function on the lissamine green test, MFI scores, Short Form 36 health survey scores, and VAS scores for sicca symptoms). One patient in the rituximab group developed mild serum sickness-like disease. These results indicate that rituximab is an effective and safe treatment strategy for patients with primary SS.
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              The wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in Sjögren's syndrome-associated neuropathy.

              We assessed the clinicopathological features of 92 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome-associated neuropathy (76 women, 16 men, 54.7 years, age at onset). The majority of patients (93%) were diagnosed with Sjögren's syndrome after neuropathic symptoms appeared. We classified these patients into seven forms of neuropathy: sensory ataxic neuropathy (n = 36), painful sensory neuropathy without sensory ataxia (n = 18), multiple mononeuropathy (n = 11), multiple cranial neuropathy (n = 5), trigeminal neuropathy (n = 15), autonomic neuropathy (n = 3) and radiculoneuropathy (n = 4), based on the predominant neuropathic symptoms. Acute or subacute onset was seen more frequently in multiple mononeuropathy and multiple cranial neuropathy, whereas chronic progression was predominant in other forms of neuropathy. Sensory symptoms without substantial motor involvement were seen predominantly in sensory ataxic, painful sensory, trigeminal and autonomic neuropathy, although the affected sensory modalities and distribution pattern varied. In contrast, motor weakness and muscle atrophy were observed in multiple mononeuropathy, multiple cranial neuropathy and radiculoneuropathy. Autonomic symptoms were often seen in all forms of neuropathy. Abnormal pupils and orthostatic hypotension were particularly frequent in sensory ataxic, painful, trigeminal and autonomic neuropathy. Unelicited somatosensory evoked potentials and spinal cord posterior column abnormalities in MRI were observed in sensory ataxic, painful and autonomic neuropathy. Sural nerve biopsy specimens (n = 55) revealed variable degrees of axon loss. Predominantly large fibre loss was observed in sensory ataxic neuropathy, whereas predominantly small fibre loss occurred in painful sensory neuropathy. Angiitis and perivascular cell invasion were seen most frequently in multiple mononeuropathy, followed by sensory ataxic neuropathy. The autopsy findings of one patient with sensory ataxic neuropathy showed severe large sensory neuron loss paralleling to dorsal root and posterior column involvement of the spinal cord, and severe sympathetic neuron loss. Degrees of neuron loss in the dorsal and sympathetic ganglion corresponded to segmental distribution of sensory and sweating impairment. Multifocal T-cell invasion was seen in the dorsal root and sympathetic ganglion, perineurial space and vessel walls in the nerve trunks. Differential therapeutic responses for corticosteroids and IVIg were seen among the neuropathic forms. These clinicopathological observations suggest that sensory ataxic, painful and perhaps trigeminal neuropathy are related to ganglioneuronopathic process, whereas multiple mononeuropathy and multiple cranial neuropathy would be more closely associated with vasculitic process.
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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                rbr
                Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
                Rev. Bras. Reumatol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia (São Paulo )
                1809-4570
                October 2015
                : 55
                : 5
                : 446-457
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ] Universidade de Santo Amaro Brazil
                [4 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [5 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [6 ] Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória Brazil
                [7 ] Universidade Federal do Amazonas Brazil
                [8 ] Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                [9 ] Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                [10 ] Universidade Federal do Amazonas Brazil
                [11 ] Brazil
                [12 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [13 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [14 ] Universidade de São Paulo Brazil
                [15 ] Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo Brazil
                [16 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                [17 ] Associação Médica Brasileira Brazil
                Article
                S0482-50042015000500446
                10.1016/j.rbr.2015.07.004
                2e1bc320-8dcd-4854-b71d-c4fc0e56e05d

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0482-5004&lng=en
                Categories
                RHEUMATOLOGY

                Rheumatology
                Sjögren's syndrome,Treatment,Recommendations,Guidelines,Systematic review,Síndrome de Sjögren,Tratamento,Recomendações,Diretrizes,Revisão sistemática

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