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      An update on the use and investigation of probiotics in health and disease

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          Abstract

          Probiotics are derived from traditional fermented foods, from beneficial commensals or from the environment. They act through diverse mechanisms affecting the composition or function of the commensal microbiota and by altering host epithelial and immunological responses. Certain probiotic interventions have shown promise in selected clinical conditions where aberrant microbiota have been reported, such as atopic dermatitis, necrotising enterocolitis, pouchitis and possibly irritable bowel syndrome. However, no studies have been conducted that can causally link clinical improvements to probiotic-induced microbiota changes. Whether a disease-prone microbiota pattern can be remodelled to a more robust, resilient and disease-free state by probiotic administration remains a key unanswered question. Progress in this area will be facilitated by: optimising strain, dose and product formulations, including protective commensal species; matching these formulations with selectively responsive subpopulations; and identifying ways to manipulate diet to modify bacterial profiles and metabolism.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          2985108R
          3923
          Gut
          Gut
          Gut
          0017-5749
          1468-3288
          15 August 2014
          08 March 2013
          May 2013
          05 March 2015
          : 62
          : 5
          : 787-796
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Dairy & Food Culture Technologies, Centennial, Colorado, USA
          [2 ]Digestive System Research Unit, University Hospital Vall d’Hebron, CIBEREHD, Barcelona, Spain
          [3 ]Center for Global Health, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA
          [4 ]Laboratory of Biochemical Genetics & Metabolism, The Rockefeller University, New York City, New York, USA
          [5 ]Department of Medicine, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Ireland
          [6 ]Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell School of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
          [7 ]Departments of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
          [8 ]The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
          [9 ]Division of Digestive Diseases, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
          Author notes
          Correspondence to: Emeran A Mayer, Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, UCLA CHS 47-122, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7378, USA; emayer@ 123456ucla.edu
          Article
          NIHMS620960
          10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302504
          4351195
          23474420

          This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 3.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/

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          Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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