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      Contextual Issues in Comparing Outcomes and Care Processes for ESRD Patients around the World

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          Comparison of survival probabilities for dialysis patients vs cadaveric renal transplant recipients.

          To compare mortality risk among cadaveric renal transplant recipients vs transplant candidates on dialysis in the cyclosporine era. Patient mortality risk was analyzed by treatment modality for a completed statewide patient population. All Michigan residents younger than age 65 years who started endstage renal disease (ESRD) therapy between January 1, 1984, and December 31, 1989, were included. Patients were followed up from ESRD onset (n = 5020), to wait-listing for renal transplant (n = 1569), to receiving a cadaveric first transplant (n = 799), and to December 31, 1989. Mortality rates. Using a time-dependent variable based on the waiting time from date of wait-listing to transplantation and adjusting for age, sex, race, and primary cause of ESRD, the relative risk (RR) of dying was increased early after transplantation and then decreased to a beneficial long-term effect, given survival to 365 days after transplantation (RR, 0.36; P .05). Overall, the estimated times from transplantation to equal mortality risk was 117 +/- 28 days and to equal cumulative mortality was 325 +/- 91 days. The overall mortality risk following renal transplantation was initially increased, but there was a long-term survival benefit compared with similar patients on dialysis. These analyses allow improved description of comparative mortality risks for dialysis and transplant patients and allow advising patients regarding comparative survival outcomes.
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            The impact of comorbid and sociodemographic factors on access to renal transplantation.

            To assess the impact of sociodemographic factors and comorbid conditions on access to renal transplantation for adult US dialysis patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Cohort analytic study. Data on comorbid conditions at onset of ESRD were abstracted from patients' medical records and matched to sociodemographic and ESRD data from the United States Renal Data System database. United States Medicare dialysis population. Random, national sample of ESRD patients starting dialysis in 1986 and 1987 (n = 4118). Time to first renal transplant (living or cadaver donor) since onset of ESRD regressed with two nested Cox proportional hazards models, first against sociodemographic factors alone, and then against sociodemographic factors and comorbid conditions. Cardiovascular diseases are most predictive of who received a transplant; patients with coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, or left ventricular hypertrophy showed lower transplantation rates relative to patients without the disease (relative rate [RR] = 0.65 to 0.80, P < .05 each). Obese patients and patients with peripheral vascular disease also showed lower transplantation rates (RR = 0.65 to 0.75, P < .05 each). Previously reported sociodemographic effects of lower transplantation rates for older patients, women, nonwhite patients, and lower income patients were confirmed (P < .01). Sociodemographic effects remained essentially unchanged when adjusted for comorbid conditions. These findings indicate that sociodemographics have strong independent effects on access to transplantation that cannot be explained away as "surrogate" effects related to comorbid factors. Furthermore, the results suggest that lower mortality rates for transplant recipients relative to dialysis patients are due, in part, to a healthier case mix among patients receiving transplants.
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              Antibiotic availability and use: consequences to man and his envronment

               Stuart Levy (1991)

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                28 December 2000
                : 19
                : 2
                : 152-156
                aDuke Institute of Renal Outcomes Research & Health Policy, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C., USA; bBeaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
                46933 Blood Purif 2001;19:152–156
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Pages: 5
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                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology


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