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      Fecal Fingerprints of Enteric Pathogen Contamination in Public Environments of Kisumu, Kenya, Associated with Human Sanitation Conditions and Domestic Animals

      , , , , 1 , 2
      Environmental Science & Technology
      American Chemical Society (ACS)

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="P3">Young children are infected by a diverse range of enteric pathogens in high disease burden settings, suggesting pathogen contamination of the environment is equally diverse. This study aimed to characterize across- and within-neighborhood diversity in enteric pathogen contamination of public domains in urban informal settlements of Kisumu, Kenya, and to assess the relationship between pathogen detection patterns and human and domestic animal sanitation conditions. Microbial contamination of soil and surface water from 166 public sites in three Kisumu neighborhoods was measured by enterococcal assays and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for 19 enteric pathogens. Regression was used to assess the association between observed sanitary indicators of contamination with enterococci and pathogen presence and concentration, and pathogen diversity. Seventeen types of pathogens were detected in Kisumu public domains. Enteric pathogens were codetected in 33% of soil and 65% of surface water samples. Greater pathogen diversity was associated with the presence of domestic animal feces but not with human open defecation, deteriorating latrines, flies, or disposal of human feces. Sanitary conditions were not associated with enterococcal bacteria, specific pathogen concentrations, or “any pathogen”. Young children played at 40% of observed sites. Managing domestic animal feces may be required to reduce enteric pathogen environmental contamination in high-burden settings. </p><p id="P4"> <div class="figure-container so-text-align-c"> <img alt="" class="figure" src="/document_file/a209d712-ed58-470d-9f7c-66d2db75d641/PubMedCentral/image/nihms-1007054-f0004.jpg"/> </div> </p>

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Environmental Science & Technology
          Environ. Sci. Technol.
          American Chemical Society (ACS)
          0013-936X
          1520-5851
          August 27 2018
          August 27 2018
          Affiliations
          [1 ]Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, United Kingdom
          [2 ]Department of Community Nutrition, Great Lakes University of Kisumu, 40100 Kisumu, Kenya
          Article
          10.1021/acs.est.8b01528
          6557411
          30106283
          2e2a570a-4dae-40bb-9452-93af8d2fbe0e
          © 2018
          History

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