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      Crystal structure and anti-inflammatory and anaphylactic effects of andrographlide sulphonate E in Xiyanping, a traditional Chinese medicine injection

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          Andrographlide sulphonate E, namely sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulphate, was one of the major ingredients of Xiyanping injection. The present study aimed to demonstrate its suitability as a reference standard for use of quality control of this traditional Chinese medicine preparation made from andrographlide that has been widely used to treat various infectious diseases.

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          Poor oral bioavailability of a promising anticancer agent andrographolide is due to extensive metabolism and efflux by P-glycoprotein.

          Andrographolide (AP), isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, is an anticancer agent with significant clinical potential. This study determined its oral bioavailability and how intestinal disposition affects its bioavailability. Pharmacokinetics was evaluated in rats. Intestinal disposition was determined using a single-pass rat intestinal perfusion model and the cultured Caco-2 cells and Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells over expressing human P-gp (MDR1-MDCKII). Absolute bioavailability of AP was 2.67%. In the duodenum and jejunum, AP was rapidly metabolized to a sulfonate, identified as 14-deoxy-12-sulfo- andrographolide. AP was also rapidly metabolized by liver S9 fraction and in blank perfusates collected from duodenum and jejunum. The apparent permeability (P(app) ) of AP from basolateral (B) to apical (A) (4.94 × 10 cm/s) in the Caco-2 model was four times higher than the P(app) from A to B (1.14 × 10(-5) cm/s). Moreover, AP was significantly more permeable in the B to A direction than the opposite direction in MDR1-MDCKII cells. In the perfusion model, the effective permeability (P*(eff) ) for AP was highest in the duodenum, followed by jejunum, and then ileum and colon. In the ileum and colon, the P*(eff) for AP was significantly increased by verapamil, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor. AP has poor oral bioavailability because of its rapid biotransformation and efflux by P-gp.
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            Inhibition of TNF-α-Induced Inflammation by andrographolide via down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

            Andrographolide (1), an active constituent of Andrographis paniculata, decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and adhesion of HL-60 cells onto human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which are associated with inflammatory diseases. Moreover, 1 abolished TNF-α-induced Akt phosphorylation. Transfection of an activated Akt1 cDNA vector increased Akt phosphorylation and ICAM-1 expression like TNF-α. In addition, 1 and LY294002 blocked TNF-α-induced IκB-α degradation and nuclear p65 protein accumulation, as well as the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Compound 1 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties through the inhibition of TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1 may be associated with the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway and downstream target NF-κB activation in HUVEC cells.
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              Is Open Access

              Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effects and acute toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis L. Aerial parts in mice.

              Myrtus communis L. aerial parts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disease. In this study 350 mice were divided into three main groups: negative (saline), positive (morphine or diclofenac) controls, and test groups. The acute toxicity was assessed for 2 days. Antinociceptive activity was performed using hot plate and writhing tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using xylene-induced ear edema and a cotton pellet test. According to phytochemical screening, the extracts contained tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 0.473 and 0.79 g/kg, respectively. In hot plate test, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed significant antinociceptive activity that was inhibited by naloxone. The extracts exhibited antinociceptive activity against acetic acid-induced writhing and also showed significant activity against acute inflammation which was dose dependent for aqueous extract. The ethanolic (0.05 g/kg) and aqueous extracts (0.005, 0.015, and 0.03 g/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects against chronic inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of M communis L. showed antinociceptive effects and these may be mediated by opioid receptors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
                J Pharm Pharmacol
                October 15 2018
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy; Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University); Ministry of Education; Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong; Yantai University; Yantai China
                [2 ]School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Yantai University; Yantai China
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections; Jiangxi Qing Feng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Ganzhou China
                © 2018





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