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      Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor as a novel target for the management of people with episodic migraine: current evidence and safety profile of erenumab

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          Abstract

          Migraine is a highly disabling neurological condition, and preventative treatment still remains problematic, due to aspecificity of the majority of the currently available prophylactic drugs. Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a crucial role in migraine pathophysiology; agents aimed at blocking its activity have, therefore, been developed in recent years, among which are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CGRP, to prevent migraine. Erenumab is the only mAb that targets the CGRP receptor instead of the ligand, with high specificity and affinity of binding. This review will report on the most recent data on erenumab characteristics and on the results of clinical trials on its employment in the prevention of episodic migraine (4–14 monthly migraine days): one Phase II and two Phase III trials (completed) and one Phase III trial (ongoing). Monthly subcutaneous administration (70 mg or 140 mg) of erenumab vs placebo for 3–6 months showed significantly higher efficacy in reducing the mean monthly number of migraine days and the use of migraine-specific medication, and in decreasing physical impairment and impact of migraine on everyday activities ( P<0.001). A favorable safety profile was demonstrated by the lack of significant differences in the occurrence of adverse events in erenumab-treated vs placebo-treated patients. Global results so far obtained point to erenumab as a new promising candidate for the preventative treatment of episodic migraine. Licence applications for erenumab were recently submitted to the Food and Drug Administration in the USA and European Medicines Agency in Europe (May/June 2017).

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          Most cited references 56

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          Safety and efficacy of erenumab for preventive treatment of chronic migraine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.

          The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway is important in migraine pathophysiology. We assessed the efficacy and safety of erenumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor, in patients with chronic migraine.
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            CGRP may play a causative role in migraine.

            Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been detected in increased amounts in external jugular venous blood during migraine attacks. However, it is unknown whether this is secondary to migraine or whether CGRP may cause headache. In a double-blind crossover study, the effect of human alphaCGRP (2 microg/min) or placebo infused intravenously for 20 min was studied in 12 patients suffering from migraine without aura. Headache intensity was scored on a scale from 0 to 10. Two patients were excluded due to severe hypotension and one because she had an infection. In the first hour median peak headache score was 1.0 in the halphaCGRP group vs. 0 in the placebo group (P < 0.01). During the following 11 h all patients experienced headaches after halphaCGRP vs. one patient after placebo (P = 0.0004). The median maximal headache score was 4 after CGRP and 0 after placebo (P = 0.006). In three patients after halphaCGRP, but in no patients after placebo, the delayed headache fulfilled the IHS criteria for migraine without aura. As intravenous administration of halphaCGRP causes headache and migraine in migraineurs, our study suggests that the increase in CGRP observed during spontaneous migraine attacks may play a causative role.
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              Vascular actions of calcitonin gene-related peptide and adrenomedullin.

              This review summarizes the receptor-mediated vascular activities of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the structurally related peptide adrenomedullin (AM). CGRP is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide, primarily released from sensory nerves, whilst AM is produced by stimulated vascular cells, and amylin is secreted from the pancreas. They share vasodilator activity, albeit to varying extents depending on species and tissue. In particular, CGRP has potent activity in the cerebral circulation, which is possibly relevant to the pathology of migraine, whilst vascular sources of AM contribute to dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Both peptides exhibit potent activity in microvascular beds. All three peptides can act on a family of CGRP receptors that consist of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CL) linked to one of three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) that are essential for functional activity. The association of CL with RAMP1 produces a CGRP receptor, with RAMP2 an AM receptor and with RAMP3 a CGRP/AM receptor. Evidence for the selective activity of the first nonpeptide CGRP antagonist BIBN4096BS for the CGRP receptor is presented. The cardiovascular activity of these peptides in a range of species and in human clinical conditions is detailed, and potential therapeutic applications based on use of antagonists and gene targeting of agonists are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                08 December 2017
                : 10
                : 2751-2760
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, Headache Center, Geriatrics Clinic and Ce.S.I.-Met, “G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy
                [2 ]Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Institute of Surgical Pathology, “G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, Medical Clinic and Ce.S.I.-Met, “G. D’Annunzio” University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy
                [4 ]Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Regional Referral Headache Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Maria Adele Giamberardino, Headache Center, SS. Annunziata Hospital, Via dei Vestini s.n., 66100 Chieti, Italy, Tel/fax +39 0871 541207, Email mag@ 123456unich.it
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                jpr-10-2751
                10.2147/JPR.S128143
                5727105
                © 2017 Giamberardino et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                erenumab, episodic migraine, cgrp, cgrp receptor

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