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      Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts Translated title: Assemblages génétiques et hôtes de Giardia duodenalis

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      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Assemblage, Genotype, Giardia, Giardia infections, Giardiasis

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          Abstract

          Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H). Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only) G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

          Translated abstract

          Les techniques pour sous-classer morphologiquement des trophozoïtes identiques de Giardia duodenalis ont inclus des comparaisons de la mobilité électrophorétique des enzymes et des chromosomes et le séquençage des gènes codant pour la β-giardine, la triose-phosphate isomérase, la petite sous-unité ribosomique de l’ARN et la glutamate déshydrogénase. À ce jour, G. duodenalis a été sous-classé en 8 assemblages génétiques (désignés par A-H). Le génotypage de G. duodenalis isolés à partir de divers hôtes a montré que les assemblages A et B infectent le grand plus grand nombre d’espèces d’hôtes, et semblent être les assemblages principaux (ou peut-être uniques) qui infectent les sujets humains de manière indéniable. Dans au moins certains cas d’infection chez les mammifères sauvages par les assemblages A ou B, des éléments indiquent que l’infection était due à la contamination de l’environnement par des kystes de G. duodenalis d’origine humaine.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis.

          Molecular diagnostic tools have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals. The results of these studies have firmly established giardiasis as a zoonotic disease, although host adaptation at the genotype and subtype levels has reduced the likelihood of zoonotic transmission. These studies have also identified variations in the distribution of Giardia duodenalis genotypes among geographic areas and between domestic and wild ruminants and differences in clinical manifestations and outbreak potentials of assemblages A and B. Nevertheless, our efforts in characterizing the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis and the roles of various animals in the transmission of human giardiasis are compromised by the lack of case-control and longitudinal cohort studies and the sampling and testing of humans and animals living in the same community, the frequent occurrence of infections with mixed genotypes and subtypes, and the apparent heterozygosity at some genetic loci for some G. duodenalis genotypes. With the increased usage of multilocus genotyping tools, the development of next-generation subtyping tools, the integration of molecular analysis in epidemiological studies, and an improved understanding of the population genetics of G. duodenalis in humans and animals, we should soon have a better appreciation of the molecular epidemiology of giardiasis, the disease burden of zoonotic transmission, the taxonomy status and virulences of various G. duodenalis genotypes, and the ecology of environmental contamination.
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            Triosephosphate Isomerase Gene Characterization and Potential Zoonotic Transmission of Giardia duodenalis

            To address the source of infection in humans and public health importance of Giardia duodenalis parasites from animals, nucleotide sequences of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene were generated for 37 human isolates, 15 dog isolates, 8 muskrat isolates, 7 isolates each from cattle and beavers, and 1 isolate each from a rat and a rabbit. Distinct genotypes were found in humans, cattle, beavers, dogs, muskrats, and rats. TPI and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of G. microti from muskrats were also generated and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis on the TPI sequences confirmed the formation of distinct groups. Nevertheless, a major group (assemblage B) contained most of the human and muskrat isolates, all beaver isolates, and the rabbit isolate. These data confirm that G. duodenalis from certain animals can potentially infect humans and should be useful in the detection, differentiation, and taxonomy of Giardia spp.
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              Molecular epidemiology of giardiasis.

              Giardia duodenalis is a widespread parasite of mammalian species, including humans. Due to its invariant morphology, investigation on aspects such as host specificity and transmission patterns requires a direct genetic characterization of cysts/trophozoites from host samples. A number of molecular assays have been developed to help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. A coherent picture has emerged from those studies, indicating the existence of seven genetic groups (or assemblages), two of which (A and B) are found in both humans and animals, whereas the remaining five (C-G) are host-specific. Sequence-based surveys have identified a number of genotypes within assemblages A and B in animal species, some of which may have zoonotic potential. Recently, however, molecular approaches have been complicated by the recognition of intra-isolate sequence heterogeneity (i.e., "mixed templates", that affects identification of subtypes within each assemblage), and by the unreliable assignment of isolates to G. duodenalis assemblages generated by different genetic markers. This raises concerns about previous interpretation of genotyping data, especially when single genetic markers have been used. The mechanisms that may be responsible for these findings, including allelic sequence heterozygosity and meiotic recombination, are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2016
                16 March 2016
                : 23
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2016/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Research Service (151), Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, University and Woodland Avenues Philadelphia PA 19104 USA
                [2 ] Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia PA 19104 USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: martin.heyworth@ 123456va.gov
                Article
                parasite150104 10.1051/parasite/2016013
                10.1051/parasite/2016013
                4794627
                26984116
                © M.F. Heyworth, published by EDP Sciences, 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 63, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Review Article

                giardiasis, giardia infections, giardia, genotype, assemblage

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