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      A Cyber Expert System for Auto-Tuning Powered Prosthesis Impedance Control Parameters

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          Most cited references 34

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          Generating fuzzy rules by learning from examples

           L. Wang,  J.M. Mendel (1992)
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            Repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data in normal adult gait.

            The repeatability of gait variables is an important consideration in the clinical use of results of quantitative gait analysis. Statistical measures were used to evaluate repeatability of kinematic, kinetic, and electromyographic data waveforms and spatiotemporal parameters of 40 normal subjects. Subjects were evaluated three times on each test day and on three different test days while walking at their preferred or natural speed. Intrasubject repeatability was excellent for kinematic data in the sagittal plane both within a test day as well as between test days. For joint angle motion in the frontal and transverse planes, the repeatability was good within a test day and poor between test days. Poor between-day repeatability of joint angle motion in the frontal and transverse planes was noted to be partly due to variabilities in the alignment of markers. Vertical reaction and fore-aft shear forces were more repeatable than the mediolateral shear force. Sagittal plane joint moments were more repeatable than frontal or transverse plane moments. For electromyographic data, repeatability within a day was slightly better than between test days. In general, the results demonstrate that with the subjects walking at their natural or preferred speed, the gait variables are quite repeatable. These observations suggest that it may be reasonable to base significant clinical decisions on the results of a single gait evaluation.
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              Kinematic variability and local dynamic stability of upper body motions when walking at different speeds.

              A ubiquitous characteristic of elderly and patients with gait disabilities is that they walk slower than healthy controls. Many clinicians assume these patients walk slower to improve their stability, just as healthy people slow down when walking across ice. However, walking slower also leads to greater variability, which is often assumed to imply deteriorated stability. If this were true, then slowing down would be completely antithetical to the goal of maintaining stability. This study sought to resolve this paradox by directly quantifying the sensitivity of the locomotor system to local perturbations that are manifested as natural kinematic variability. Eleven young healthy subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at five different speeds. Three-dimensional movements of a single marker placed over the first thoracic vertebra were recorded during continuous walking. Mean stride-to-stride standard deviations and maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents were computed for each time series to quantify the variability and local dynamic stability, respectively, of these movements. Quadratic regression analyses of the dependent measures vs. walking speed revealed highly significant U shaped trends for all three mean standard deviations, but highly significant linear trends, with significant or nearly significant quadratic terms, for five of the six finite-time Lyapunov exponents. Subjects exhibited consistently better local dynamic stability at slower speeds for these five measures. These results support the clinically based intuition that people who are at increased risk of falling walk slower to improve their stability, even at the cost of increased variability.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annals of Biomedical Engineering
                Ann Biomed Eng
                Springer Nature
                0090-6964
                1573-9686
                May 2016
                September 25 2015
                : 44
                : 5
                : 1613-1624
                Article
                10.1007/s10439-015-1464-7
                © 2015

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