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      High Cut-Off Hemofiltration versus Standard Hemofiltration: A Pilot Assessment of Effects on Indices of Apoptosis

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          Objectives: To measure plasma pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic activity in severe acute kidney injury (AKI) patients within a randomized controlled trial of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration with high cut-off filters (CVVH-HCO) versus standard filters (CVVH-Std). Methods: We measured pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic plasma activity by trypan blue exclusion cell viability assay, detection of DNA fragmentation, and by determination of caspase-3 activity and annexin V-based apoptosis and necrosis detection assay. Results: Compared to no apoptosis or necrosis after incubation with healthy plasma, 14-18% of cells showed apoptosis and 4-8% showed necrosis after incubation with plasma from AKI patients. When comparing different measures of pro-apoptotic or pro-necrotic activity, CVVH-HCO and CVVH-Std showed no differential effects on such activity, which remained high over the first 3 days of treatment. However, using annexin V-FITC, there was a significant drop in pro-apoptotic activity across the filter for the CVVH-HCO group (p = 0.043) but not for the CVVH-Std group (p = 0.327) and a significant difference between the two groups (CVVH-HCO vs. CVVH-Std p = 0.006). Conclusions: Patients with severe AKI have increased pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic activity. Although on single-pass effect assessment, CVVH-HCO was superior to CVVH-Std in decreasing annexin V-FITC-assessed pro-apoptotic activity, there was no overall attenuation of such activity during the first 3 days of treatment.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Apoptosis and acute kidney injury.

          Improved mechanistic understanding of renal cell death in acute kidney injury (AKI) has generated new therapeutic targets. Clearly, the classic lesion of acute tubular necrosis is not adequate to describe the consequences of renal ischemia, nephrotoxin exposure, or sepsis on glomerular filtration rate. Experimental evidence supports a pathogenic role for apoptosis in AKI. Interestingly, proximal tubule epithelial cells are highly susceptible to apoptosis, and injury at this site contributes to organ failure. During apoptosis, well-orchestrated events converge at the mitochondrion, the organelle that integrates life and death signals generated by the BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein family. Death requires the 'perfect storm' for outer mitochondrial membrane injury to release its cellular 'executioners'. The complexity of this process affords new targets for effective interventions, both before and after renal insults. Inhibiting apoptosis appears to be critical, because circulating factors released by the injured kidney induce apoptosis and inflammation in distant organs including the heart, lung, liver, and brain, potentially contributing to the high morbidity and mortality associated with AKI. Manipulation of known stress kinases upstream of mitochondrial injury, induction of endogenous, anti-apoptotic proteins, and improved understanding of the timing and consequences of renal cell apoptosis will inevitably improve the outcome of human AKI.
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            Mechanisms of phosphatidylserine exposure, a phagocyte recognition signal, on apoptotic T lymphocytes

            The appearance of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the cell surface during apoptosis in thymocytes and cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell lines provokes PS-dependent recognition by activated macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis of transbilayer lipid movements in T lymphocytes undergoing apoptosis reveals that downregulation of the adenosine triphosphate- dependent amino-phospholipid translocase and activation of a nonspecific lipid scramblase are responsible for PS reaching the surface from its intracellular location. Both mechanisms are expressed at the same time, and precede DNA degradation, zeiosis, and cell lysis in the apoptotic pathway.
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              Pathophysiology of septic acute kidney injury: what do we really know?

              Septic acute kidney injury accounts for close to 50% of all cases of acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit and, in its various forms, affects between 15% and 20% of intensive care unit patients. However, there is little we really know about its pathophysiology. Although hemodynamic factors might play a role in the loss of glomerular filtration rate, they may not act through the induction of renal ischemia. Septic acute renal failure may, at least in patients with a hyperdynamic circulation, represent a unique form of acute renal failure: hyperemic acute renal failure. Measurements of renal blood flow in septic humans are now needed to resolve this pivotal pathophysiological question. Whatever may happen to renal blood flow during septic acute kidney injury in humans, the evidence available suggests that urinalysis fails to provide useful diagnostic or prognostic information in this setting. In addition, nonhemodynamic mechanisms of cell injury are likely to be at work. These mechanisms are likely due to a combination of immunologic, toxic, and inflammatory factors that may affect the microvasculature and the tubular cells. Among these mechanisms, apoptosis may turn out to be important. It is possible that, as evidence accumulates, the paradigms currently used to explain acute renal failure in sepsis will shift from ischemia and vasoconstriction to hyperemia and vasodilation and from acute tubular necrosis to acute tubular apoptosis or simply tubular cell dysfunction or exfoliation. If this were to happen, our therapeutic approaches would also be profoundly altered.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                October 2014
                01 August 2014
                : 37
                : 4
                : 296-303
                aClinical School Johor Bahru, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia; bDepartment of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplant, San Bortolo Hospital, San Bortolo, and cInternational Renal Research Institute Vicenza, IRRIV, Vicenza, Italy; dDepartment of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Vic., and eAustralian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Melbourne, Vic., Australia; fGambro Dialysatoren GmbH, Research and Development, Hechingen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Prof. Rinaldo Bellomo, Department of Intensive Care, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, VIC 3084 (Australia), E-Mail
                363220 Blood Purif 2014;37:296-303
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, Pages: 8
                Original Paper


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