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      Effects of the micro-nano surface topography of titanium alloy on the biological responses of osteoblast : BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF MG63 CELLS

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          The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder.

          A key tenet of bone tissue engineering is the development of scaffold materials that can stimulate stem cell differentiation in the absence of chemical treatment to become osteoblasts without compromising material properties. At present, conventional implant materials fail owing to encapsulation by soft tissue, rather than direct bone bonding. Here, we demonstrate the use of nanoscale disorder to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce bone mineral in vitro, in the absence of osteogenic supplements. This approach has similar efficiency to that of cells cultured with osteogenic media. In addition, the current studies show that topographically treated MSCs have a distinct differentiation profile compared with those treated with osteogenic media, which has implications for cell therapies.
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            Mechanical properties and the hierarchical structure of bone.

             Misty Kuhn,  Y. Rho,  P Zioupos (1998)
            Detailed descriptions of the structural features of bone abound in the literature; however, the mechanical properties of bone, in particular those at the micro- and nano-structural level, remain poorly understood. This paper surveys the mechanical data that are available, with an emphasis on the relationship between the complex hierarchical structure of bone and its mechanical properties. Attempts to predict the mechanical properties of bone by applying composite rule of mixtures formulae have been only moderately successful, making it clear that an accurate model should include the molecular interactions or physical mechanisms involved in transfer of load across the bone material subunits. Models of this sort cannot be constructed before more information is available about the interactions between the various organic and inorganic components. Therefore, further investigations of mechanical properties at the 'materials level', in addition to the studies at the 'structural level' are needed to fill the gap in our present knowledge and to achieve a complete understanding of the mechanical properties of bone.
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              Enhanced functions of osteoblasts on nanophase ceramics.

               T. Webster (2000)
              Select functions of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) on nanophase (materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm) alumina, titania, and hydroxyapatite (HA) were investigated using in vitro cellular models. Compared to conventional ceramics, surface occupancy of osteoblast colonies was significantly less on all nanophase ceramics tested in the present study after 4 and 6 days of culture. Osteoblast proliferation was significantly greater on nanophase alumina, titania, and HA than on conventional formulations of the same ceramic after 3 and 5 days. More importantly, compared to conventional ceramics, synthesis of alkaline phosphatase and deposition of calcium-containing mineral was significantly greater by osteoblasts cultured on nanophase than on conventional ceramics after 21 and 28 days. The results of the present study provided the first evidence of enhanced long-term (on the order of days to weeks) functions of osteoblasts cultured on nanophase ceramics; in this manner, nanophase ceramics clearly represent a unique and promising class of orthopaedic/dental implant formulations with improved osseointegrative properties.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A
                J. Biomed. Mater. Res.
                Wiley
                15493296
                March 2017
                March 2017
                November 18 2016
                : 105
                : 3
                : 757-769
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Dental Implantology, School and Hospital of Stomatology; Jilin University, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Tooth Development and Bone Remodeling; Changchun 130021 People's Republic of China
                Article
                10.1002/jbm.a.35941
                © 2016

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