Background: Primary membranous nephropathy (pMN) is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. The discovery of the 2 autoantigens, M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), has defined pMN as an autoimmune disease. A remarkable increase in the frequency of pMN in primary glomerular disease was witnessed in China. The genetic and environmental contributors to disease susceptibility have been investigated in these patients. Summary: We reviewed recent publications in genetic and environmental studies of pMN, focusing mainly on those undertaken in China. Following a genome-wide association study, the gene-gene interaction between the 2 most significant risk factors, PLA2R1 and DQA1, was validated in Chinese patients with MN. Fine mapping on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus found that DRB1*1501 and DRB1*0301 were risk alleles. Three amino acid residues on positions 13 and 71 of HLA-DRβ1 chain may confer the susceptibility to pMN by presenting T-cell epitopes on PLA2R. Another study found that DRB3*0202 was the most likely culprit allele for the signal at DRB1*0301. One environmental risk factor for pMN has been identified as the long-term exposure to high levels of PM<sub>2.5</sub> in Chinese patients with MN. Each 10 μg/m<sup>3</sup> increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration was associated with 14% higher odds for pMN in the regions with PM<sub>2.5</sub> above 70 μg/m<sup>3</sup>. Key Message: A gene-environment interaction is suspected as an underlying mechanism for the increasing trend of pMN in China.