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      Commensal-dendritic-cell interaction specifies a unique protective skin immune signature.

      Nature

      Animals, Antigens, Bacterial, immunology, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, cytology, Dendritic Cells, Humans, Immunity, Innate, Interleukin-17, Langerhans Cells, Mice, Mice, Inbred BALB C, Mice, Inbred C57BL, Primates, Skin, microbiology, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Symbiosis

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          Abstract

          The skin represents the primary interface between the host and the environment. This organ is also home to trillions of microorganisms that play an important role in tissue homeostasis and local immunity. Skin microbial communities are highly diverse and can be remodelled over time or in response to environmental challenges. How, in the context of this complexity, individual commensal microorganisms may differentially modulate skin immunity and the consequences of these responses for tissue physiology remains unclear. Here we show that defined commensals dominantly affect skin immunity and identify the cellular mediators involved in this specification. In particular, colonization with Staphylococcus epidermidis induces IL-17A(+) CD8(+) T cells that home to the epidermis, enhance innate barrier immunity and limit pathogen invasion. Commensal-specific T-cell responses result from the coordinated action of skin-resident dendritic cell subsets and are not associated with inflammation, revealing that tissue-resident cells are poised to sense and respond to alterations in microbial communities. This interaction may represent an evolutionary means by which the skin immune system uses fluctuating commensal signals to calibrate barrier immunity and provide heterologous protection against invasive pathogens. These findings reveal that the skin immune landscape is a highly dynamic environment that can be rapidly and specifically remodelled by encounters with defined commensals, findings that have profound implications for our understanding of tissue-specific immunity and pathologies.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression with color-coded probe pairs.

          We describe a technology, the NanoString nCounter gene expression system, which captures and counts individual mRNA transcripts. Advantages over existing platforms include direct measurement of mRNA expression levels without enzymatic reactions or bias, sensitivity coupled with high multiplex capability, and digital readout. Experiments performed on 509 human genes yielded a replicate correlation coefficient of 0.999, a detection limit between 0.1 fM and 0.5 fM, and a linear dynamic range of over 500-fold. Comparison of the NanoString nCounter gene expression system with microarrays and TaqMan PCR demonstrated that the nCounter system is more sensitive than microarrays and similar in sensitivity to real-time PCR. Finally, a comparison of transcript levels for 21 genes across seven samples measured by the nCounter system and SYBR Green real-time PCR demonstrated similar patterns of gene expression at all transcript levels.
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            Batf3 deficiency reveals a critical role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells in cytotoxic T cell immunity.

            Although in vitro observations suggest that cross-presentation of antigens is mediated primarily by CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, in vivo analysis has been hampered by the lack of systems that selectively eliminate this cell lineage. We show that deletion of the transcription factor Batf3 ablated development of CD8alpha+ dendritic cells, allowing us to examine their role in immunity in vivo. Dendritic cells from Batf3-/- mice were defective in cross-presentation, and Batf3-/- mice lacked virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses to West Nile virus. Importantly, rejection of highly immunogenic syngeneic tumors was impaired in Batf3-/- mice. These results suggest an important role for CD8alpha+ dendritic cells and cross-presentation in responses to viruses and in tumor rejection.
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              Memory T cell subsets, migration patterns, and tissue residence.

              Tissues such as the skin and mucosae are frequently exposed to microbial pathogens. Infectious agents must be quickly and efficiently controlled by our immune system, but the low frequency of naive T cells specific for any one pathogen means dependence on primary responses initiated in draining lymph nodes, often allowing time for serious infection to develop. These responses imprint effectors with the capacity to home to infected tissues; this process, combined with inflammatory signals, ensures the effective targeting of primary immunity. Upon vaccination or previous pathogen exposure, increased pathogen-specific T cell numbers together with altered migratory patterns of memory T cells can greatly improve immune efficacy, ensuring infections are prevented or at least remain subclinical. Until recently, memory T cell populations were considered to comprise central memory T cells (TCM), which are restricted to the secondary lymphoid tissues and blood, and effector memory T cells (TEM), which broadly migrate between peripheral tissues, the blood, and the spleen. Here we review evidence for these two memory populations, highlight a relatively new player, the tissue-resident memory T cell (TRM), and emphasize the potential differences between the migratory patterns of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. This new understanding raises important considerations for vaccine design and for the measurement of immune parameters critical to the control of infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                25539086
                10.1038/nature14052

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