Ficus hispida Linn. (Family Moraceae), well-known beneficial medicinal shrub, has been traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases such as leukoderma.
The aim of the present study is to investigate the efficacy of F. hispida ethanolic leaves extract for antiproliferative, apoptotic, cell cycle blockade, and wound healing.
F. hispida leaves extract was treated with colorectal adenocarcinoma cancer cell line HT29 for 24 h with control. The cells were treated at varying concentration ranges of 15, 31, 62, 125, and 250 μg/ml each The cytotoxicity effect of leaves extract was studied by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and their anticancer activity was further evaluated using cell cycle analysis and wound scratch assay.
The end antiproliferative result showed that HT-29 cell viability decreases in a concentration-dependent manner and the growth inhibitory effect (IC50) values are obtained at a concentration of 125 μg. The increase in number of apoptotic cell was observed after treating HT-29 cells with the sample in double-staining methods. G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle was significantly blocked by the test sample followed by the G2/M phase in a negligible manner. In vitro cell wound closure or contracture was not significant when compared the sample against control group.
F. hispida Linn. ethanolic leaves extract had shown to possess excellent cytotoxic effect through inducing apoptosis, especially causing cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase.
The experiment tries to evaluate the effectiveness of F. hispida leaves extract as an antiproliferative, apoptotic, cell cycle inhibitor and wound healing agent. Results showed that F. hispida Linn extract own cytotoxic property by inducing apoptosis through cell cycle arrest.
Abbreviations used: HT 29: Human adenocarcinoma colorectal cell line; PBS: Phosphate Buffered Saline; FBS: Fetal Bovine Serum; DMEM: Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium; MTT: 3 [4, 5 dimethylthiazol 2 yl] 2, 5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide; NCCS: National Centre for Cell Sciences; DMSO: DiMethyl SulfOxide; PI: Propidium Iodide; AO: Acridine Orange;EB: Ethidium Bromide; IC: Inhibitory Concentration.